Western Research Institute (WRI)

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This digital collection is a series of technical reports from WRI's Coal Gasification initiatives. Western Research Institute (WRI), located in Laramie, Wyoming, is a multi-million dollar, not-for-profit, research organization renowned for work in advanced energy systems, environmental technologies and highway materials research. The institute's corporate headquarters are on the University of Wyoming campus and a 22-acre Advanced Technology Center (ATC) north of Laramie that provides additional laboratories, plus pilot facilities and room for new development. WRI is a research institute with broad perspectives and know-how in science, technology and real-world, on-the-ground conditions. Their highly experienced team of men and women offer expertise from fields such as chemical, petroleum and environmental engineering, organic, physical, analytical and inorganic chemistry, geology, soil science, business administration and economics. Through our Cooperative Research Program with the Department of Energy, WRI originates technologies that attract industrial partners from corporations, industry associations, government entities, and other research organizations. WRI advances client technologies from concept to bench scale through pilot testing and commercialization. With the Federal Highway Administration, WRI conducts concentrated research that supports breakthroughs in materials knowledge, leading to safer, longer-lasting roads―experience WRI is able to bring to bear to meet client needs. WRI offers the full matrix of resources―experience, expertise, physical infrastructure and industry connections―to realize the potential of your concepts or ours. WRI extends your reach.


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Adsorption Of Organics From Tar Sand Water By Activated Carbon In Packed Beds
The adsorption of TS-1S and TS-2C tar sand waters were studied at 278 and 298 K on activated carbon in both batch and packed bed experiments. The isotherms were nonlinear over the entire liquid concentration ranges. Breakthrough curves were obtained in packed bed experiments as a function of bed lengths, particle size, and liquid velocity. A mechanistic approach was used to solve the mass transfer equations for the packed adsorber, the mass transfer coefficients and the rates of adsorption were calculated. Also the breakthrough curves were analyzed to establish the relative importance of the various individual mechanisms that contributed to the overall adsorption process.
Adsorption Of Oxyantions By Spent Western Oil Shale: I. Arsenate
The partitioning of arsenate between Paraho indirectly retorted and directly retorted oil shales and a combusted oil shale was examined with batch equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Arsenate adsorption was found statistically different affinities for arsenate. The greater adsorption capacity of combusted oil shale for arsenate was attributed to greater surface area and free iron oxide. Arsenate adsorption by combusted oil shale was not reversible. Upon dilution of the solution phase, arsenate did not desorb. Upon dilution of the retorted oil shale solutions, arsenate continued to be removed from solution. An evaluation of metal arsenate. stability in the spent oil shale systems indicated that the retorted oil Shale solutions were highly supersaturated with respect to magnesium and barium arsenates, whereas the combusted oil shale solutions were not supersaturated . The data were interpreted to indicate that adsorption reactions control arsenate solubility at short reaction times. As reaction times increase, precipitation reactions control soluble arsenate concentrations., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Adsorption Of Pyridine By Combusted Oil Shale
Spent oil shale is the solid waste product that results from the production of synthetic crude oil from oil shale. A commercial-scale shale oil operation will generate large quantities of solid waste materials. The Unocal operation at Parachute, Colorado, produced 95,400 ma of synthetic crude oil and 675,000 MT of spent oil shale in 1987 with a shale ore throughput averaging 55% of design capacity (Knutson et al. 1988). Routson et al. (1979) estimated that the production of spent oil shale from a mature shale oil industry would exceed 106 MT d-1. The production of such large quantities of spent oil shale constitutes a major disposal problem......
Advanced Process Technology
The ETC's are active in several areas of research in extraction, processing and utilization of fossil liquids. Current on-going activities with some adjustments in direction as research proceeds, should be continued and supported. As these studies progress we will be constantly monitoring research on fossil liquids, attempting to fill significant gaps left by industry and others and identifying the critical areas requiring attention. Mr. M. A. Albright of Phillips Petroleum, in a recent address to a meeting on design properties for coal liquefaction, has suggested several research areas requiring attention: High temperature measurements Critical evaluation of present data Characterization of heavy fractions High pressure-high temperature thermodynamic and physical property measurements Chemical equilibrium "Supercritical" equilibrium Phase equilibrium Environmental protection data Product stability data Viscosity Pipeline characteristics These activities are also important in the conduct of research on heavy ends/ heavy oils and other syncrudes. The ETC's have been working in most of these areas for some time and will be called upon in the future to continue to do so because of their complexity and the long-term commitments they entail. These are the problem areas in which the ETC's can and have made valuable contributions. The present and projected budgets are shown in Table 1. Out year budgets are considered inadequate for new project starts and increased activity in current projects such as the reference fuels., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Advanced Waste Water Treatment - Final Technical Report For The Period April 1, 1986-March 31, 1987 Including The Quarterly Technical Progress Report For The Period January through March, 1987
The objective of the fixed-film demonstrate the applicability of this gasification condensate., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Agreement For Professional Services
Agreement made between Conestoga-Rovers and Associates Limited (hereinafter "CRA") and Western Research Institute (hereinafter "Client")., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Air Products For Hydrogen Of SRC Liquid Products
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Air Quality Permitting Tasks
WRI had oversight responsibility for DOE demonstration projects throughout the U. S . These projects required that relationships be built with environmental regulators. WRI personnel have successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain and maintain permits for oil shale, coal gasification and tar sand extraction technology on six projects in Wyoming. WRI was also in the position of obtaining waivers for some permits and monitoring the DOE work. More recently, WRI has become involved in rigorous permitting activity with Superfund sites. WRI key successes include acquisition of data for permits on many installations, ,projects with the Army Corps of Engineers, Wyoming projects requiring permits at state and 'I local levels, and at EPA Superfund sites. WRI uses the accepted models that compose current air quality modeling technology. WRI , conducts experimental verification tests evaluating air quality models. Recently, under the CAAA of 1990 in an EPA and DOE sponsored program, WRI (1993) has done C02 releases and verified the predicted concentrations for the EPA. WRI accomplished all of this project within budget by obtaining EPA approval to proceed, modeling to predict concentrations downwind of the release, designing the field experiments to deploy the monitoring instrumentation, and I performing the first analysis of the data in five months. WRI is currently UIjder contract to evaluate source term and dense gas models with the state of Nevada and the EPA., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Air Stripping For Treatment Of Produced Water
In a laboratory study, air stripping shows a promising potential for treatment of produced water to meet the new government regulations on total organic carbon. Reservoir hydrocarbons dissolved in water, such as volatile paraffins and aromatics, can be removed by air stripping through interphase mass transfer. However, air stripping can not remove many chemicals added to crude oil by the operator., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Airport Expansion Gaining Momentum
As energy development gets underway In Shale country, airports can expect greater demands on their facilities, Currently, the airports in Grand junction, CO, and Vernal, Utah handle most of the region's commercial needs. In 1975, anticipating energy-related growth, both cities commissioned master plans for airport improvement and expansion. Now, airport officials are busy updating these plans., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Alaska Oil Production Waste Incineration Tests At Western Research Institute, September-November 1991
Entech Inc. (Alaska) contracted with Western Research Institute (WRI) to: (1) measure and analyze exhaust gas flows from selected incineration tests, (2) analyze raw feed and ash samples for the same tests, (3) perform a screw reactor pyrolysis/incineration test on one of the three raw feed materials, and (4) do permitting necessary for the test program..
Alberta Committee On Oil Sands Analysis Round Robin Analysis Of Athabasca Bitumen - Final Report
The Alberta Committee on Oil Sands Analysis (ACOSA) represents a joint effort of the private, government and university sectors to establish a set of recommended methods for storage, sampling and the analyses of oil sands, bitumen and related materials..., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collections - Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Alkali Measurement In PFBC And Its Control By A Granular Bed Of Activated Bauxite
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
All Values In MG-L
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Alternate Aircraft Fuel Program-NASA
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Ammonia Analysis Data
The purpose of this report is to transmit the chemical analyses on the scrubbing liquor and retort process gas performed during the I-ton retort runs S-77 through S-79. The following analyses were performed during these runs: o ammonia concentration in the process gas stream both upstream and downstream of the venturi scrubber o ammonia, sulfide and carbonate concentrations in the spent scrubbing liquor recovered from the cyclone separator o physical properties and elemental composition analyses of the oil recovery at the steam drip leg and demist tower blowdown ports., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Ammonia Evolution From Western And Eastern Oil Shales
The study of nitrogen (N) species released during oil shale processing is an important research area because both oil shale and shale oil are rich in N. Combustion of N-bearing fuels can produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). The emissions of NOx are limited by law due to environmental concerns. Ammonia is a major N by-product in oil shale processing. Figure 1 shows the distribution of N in different product streams in our LLNL gravity-bed recycle retort system. The retort water and pyrolysis gases carry 4% and 0.2% of the total N, respectively, and ammonia accounts for most of the N in these product streams. Ammonia also accounts for half of N in the combustion gas stream, and NOx for the other half. The concentrations of HCN and molecular nitrogen (N2) in the combustion gas stream were not determined, so they were not included in the balance. The total N balance is poor, probably due to species not measured and to the lack of accuracy in determination of the N content in solids. We studied ammonia evolution by pyrolyzing oil shale under a given time-temperature history and measuring the total yield of ammonia by an ammonia electrode.1 We learned that: the NH3 yield increased rapidly as the final pyrolysis temperature increased above 500°C; NHg evolved at oil-generating temperatures came from organic N, while the high temperature NH3 was from both organic and inorganic sources; the yield at T > 500 °C is affected by the decomposition reaction; and steam worked as an inhibitor for NH3 decomposition. Earlier, we reported an on-line technique measuring real-time evolution of ammonia using a mass spectrometer.1,2 In this paper, we summarize the on-line ammonia evolution rates for two Green River Formation oil shales and one Eastern oil shale under inert gas (argon) and also under steam. We analyze the contribution of the organic/inorganic sources of N to the NH3 yield at different pyrolysis temperatures and show oil shale N-chemistry during pyrolysis. We also compare the kinetics of ammonia evolution with that of other pyrolysis gases., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Aanalysis Of WRI's Performance Appraisal System
WRI's current performance appraisal (PA) system was evaluated using two approaches, an employee survey and a .statistical analysis of the ratings received by employees during the nine administrations. As a result of this analysis, changes are suggested to modify the system in order to enhance the benefits derived from it: 1) input for merit pay/promotion decisions, 2) identification of underachieving employees, 3) communication device between employee and supervisor ensuring that the employee is working toward the benefit of WRI while enhancing his/her career opportunities within the organization and 4) assurance that there is no discrimination against protected employees from an EEO standpoint. Overall, the current system is operating smoothly and appears to be meeting management's needs. However, there are areas causing confusion to employees and the system is not being administered uniformly throughout the organization. If these problems are addressed, the system should become a stronger management tool assisting supervisors to better guide the productivity and career growth of employees. Employees should benefit by becoming more knowledgeable about the organization, what is expected of them, and how to enhance their career opportunities. The employee survey was written in order to consider comments made through the years by current and terminating employees. It was initially administered to a small group of representative employees who suggested clarifications and improvements. Then, it was distributed to 134 employees; 54.5% responded., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Accurate And Graphable Solution For The Integral Of The Arrhenius Function
An approximation to the integral of the Arrhenius function is found by incorporating a nearly-constant integrating factor. The solutions, which can be determined graphically, are of an accuracy comparable to that of the rational approximations., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Algorithm For Computing IN-SITU Combustion Oil Recovery Performance
During in-situ combustion oil recovery, a burning front moves through the formation displacing all of the water and most of the oil in the formation. Often, oil recovery from in-situ combustion is computed considering only the oil displaced by the burning front. This leads to a constant. high value of injected air to oil displaced ratio. The oil displacement is more complex than this simple model indicates. Combustion gas and steam and distilled hydrocarbons move ahead of the burning front. Heat transmission from this vaporizating-condensing region ahead of the burning front, solution of carbon dioxide from the combustion gases, and many other mechanisms are involved in oil displacement. A simple method to consider the frontal displacement, thermally Blided gravity drainage, steam distillation, oil swelling and viscosity reduction and other significant mechanisms ahead of and adjacent the burning front has been published in a correlation of field and laboratory physical model studies of combustion oil recovery. This method is called the oil-recovery/volume-burned method. This method indlcates that the air/oil ratio passes through a minimum, and that oil is recovered more rapidly than is indicated by a simple frontal displacement. The oil-recovery/volume-burned method can be used to make accurate engineering and economic evaluations for the design and monitoring of in-situ combustion projects. In this paper an algorithm based on this method is presented to provide a quick estimate of the oil recovery air/oil ratios, oil rates, and economic limits of in-situ combustion projects., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Analysis Of Gas Utilization/Control Concepts For An In Situ Oil Shale Retort
This research program addresses the utilization and control of off-gas produced from in situ oil shale retorting processes. This report summarizes Phase I of the program which focused on off-gas characterization and utilization. Data from relevant experiments were analyzed and typical in-situ off-gas characteristics are defined for the four common retorting inputs: pure air, air/recycle, air/steam, and pure steam. Environmental and economic constraints associated with utilization and control of off-gases from these processes are discussed. Leading technologies available for sulfur removal are summarized. Combustion characteristics of the various off-gases are evaluated. Current technology developments for combustion of ultra-low-Btu fuels are reviewed for application to .i!! situ oil shale off-gas utilization. A new off-gas utilization/control concept involving gas phase fluidized bed combustion is introduced. This process has the potent i alto provide both enhanced combustion and sulfur compound removal within the same vessel. Off-gas utilization power cycles required for commercialization of the in situ processes are defined. For the in situ retorting processes nearest commercialization, those using air/steam input, a detailed power cycle analysis is presented for a 50,000 bbl/day demonstration plant. The analysis first addresses a basic steam cycle expected to be most viable during in-situ oil shale industry development. Then the analysis addresses a gas turbine/waste heat boiler cycle expected to be the prime off-gas utilization option as the industry matures. The system analysis provide performance characteristics and a conceptual design is presented. Areas that require further investigation for the development of off-gas utilization are identified.
An Analysis Of In Situ Coal Extraction Using Pyridine
A cost-effective method for in situ coal liquefaction would use an inexpensive solvent that can efficiently extract coal at moderate temperatures and pressures. Because such a solvent appears difficult to find, we chose pyridine for studying some of the problems associated with in situ coal liquefaction. Pyridine is not inexpensive, but it can be thought of as a model for cheaper solvents. Pyridine is known to extract 11.5% of Wyodak coal under ambient conditions....
An Analysis Of Off-Gas Control/Utilization Concepts For An In Situ Oil Shale Retort
ERDA's Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) is the lead government laboratory for oil shale R&D. LERC has built a strong base in the area of oil shale research and engineering toward technology development. Since the estimated oil shale resource in the United States is equivalent to 1,800 billion barrels of oil* (a 140-year supply at the present U.S. rate of consumption), there is a major incentive to develop this vast energy potential. To encourage development of oil shale production capabilities parallel efforts are required in such areas as: • Resource Evaluation • Resource Recovery Techniques • Product/Byproduct Characterization • Product Refining • Environmental Studies Activities are currently ongoing at LERC in all of the above areas. In the area of resource evaluation, a major study has been ongoing to assess and evaluate the composition, properties, and location of oil shale deposits, and their characterization relative to process constraints. These studies indicate that approximately two-thirds of the oil shale resources are low grade deposits that are not amenable to conventional mining techniques. In situ processing offers possibilities for recovery of these resources. Studies at LERC in resource recovery have centered around in situ recovery technology which has distinct economic and environmental advantages over conventional mining techniques. It is estimated that, compared to mining and surface processing of oil shale, in situ production of shale oil would require: • Two-thirds fewer people to operate process • One-half the amount of water • Greatly reduced disposal of waste oil shale A number of shale oil recovery field programs have been conducted by LERC; the most recent being the Rock Springs Site 9 combustion project. In addition Laramie has ongoing research and technology development experimental programs utilizing aboveground retorts; a ten-ton configuration and a 150-ton configuration. Both of these units have been used to investigate the basic characteristics and parameters associated with simulated in situ combustion retorting of various types of oil shale under different operational conditions. Data from these experimental programs has formed the basis for LERE's field projects and other industrial or cooperative industrial/government efforts dealing with in situ shale oil recovery using underground combustion. In parallel to the field development programs and the aboveground retort experimental studies LERC has also been conducting studies to develop characterization and analytical techniques for gases, organic liquids, solids and water from shale oil extraction processes. Further studies at LERC are aimed at improved refining methods and improved product quality of shale-derived synthetic fuels. LERC has not been developing the technology of shale recovery at the expense of environmental considerations however. LERC's approach is based on the realization that environmental impacts of in situ recovery must be assessed at an early stage in the technology development process and the required control technology must be established on a timely basis. A great deal of attention has been focused on land use and water problems, and on product utilization in shale oil development, but until now little attention has been paid to byproduct gas control and utilization from in situ processes. Since the off gas from shale oil recovery processes (emphasizing liquid kerogen recovery) contains percent quantitites of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and sometimes hydrogen sulfide, it is vital that emissions of these pollutants be controlled. If possible, it may be desirable to recover the energy contained in the effluent gas which may range from 20 to 200 BTU/scf. Adding to the problem is the fact that the quantities of gases are substantial, amounting to perhaps 100,000-200,000 scf/bbl of shale oil produced. For a typical commercial recovery operation producing 50,000-100,000 bbl/day of shale oil, 10 Bscf/day of gas would be handled. All of LERC's activities in shale oil technology are aimed at successful development towards market penetration. Thus far the environmental control requirements and utilization possibilities for the off-gases from the in situ recovery process have received only limited attention. In order to insure expeditious development of the process, expanded effort on this important problem is required now. This document addresses the need for a two-pronged approach to the problem, considering the possibilities of both utilization of the off-gases to recover their energy content, and control of the pollutants in the off-gases. Combinations of control and utilization options may be required to optimize the maximum use of available energy while at the same time reducing emissions to minimize environmental impact. The options available will depend to a great extent on the nature of the off-gases which in turn is determined by such variables as the resource characteristics and the process/retort parameters. Some correlation of off-gas quality with these variables will be necessary for a detailed analysis. Successful completion of this project will result in: • Characterization of the effluent gases from in situ shale oil recovery • An evaluation of technical and economic feasibility of control/utilization options • A detailed evaluation of feasible options • An evaluation of the control utilization options in terms of the impact of variations in effluent characteristics • A technology development plan for control utilization of off-gases from in situ shale oil recovery
An Analysis Of The Coal Resources In The Almond And Lower Fort Union Formations, Salt Wells Area, Rock Springs Coal Field; And A portion of the Adaville Formation, Spring Valley District Kemmerer Field, Hams Fork Coal Region; S.W. Wyoming
The contents contained herein were developed through the use of funds provided by the U. S. Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and by this notice the Energy Center does not agree or disagree with any of the ideas expressed or implied in this report. Similarly, the University of Wyoming, in publishing this report, assumes no legal liability or responsibility for its contents. Any use of company names, trade names, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the Department of Energy, the University of Wyoming, or the Geological Survey of Wyoming.
An Analysis Of The High-Temperature Particulate Collection Problem
Particulate agglomeration and separation at high temperatures and pressures are examined, with particular emphasis on the unique features of the direct-cycle application of fluidized-bed combustion. The basic long-range mechanisms of aerosol separation are examined, and the effects of high temperature and high pressure on usable collection techniques are assessed. Primary emphasis is placed on those avenues that are not currently attracting widespread research. The high-temperature, particulate-collection problem is surveyed, together with the peculiar requirements associated with operation of turbines with particulate-bearing gas streams.
An Analysis Of Water Requirements For Oil Shale Processing By Surface Retorting - Final Report
The United States has the greatest oil-shale resources in the world, more than 1 trillion barrels. Of these resources, some 80 billion barrels are estimated to be recoverable with current technology from the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The current technology for recovering oil from oil shale involves either in situ processing or surface retort processing. In the latter process, significant amounts of water are required. The Eyring Research Institute and the Sutron Corporation have conducted this short-term study for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to estimate the water required by surface retorting systems currently proposed by six different operators in the Green River Formation area. Four different retorting systems, single and in combination, have been proposed or are being considered. Table I-I is a summary of the operators who provided data for this study and the retorting processes used., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Analytical Method For Assessing The Quality, By Microbial Evaluation Of Aqueous Effluents Obtained From An In Situ Oil Shale Process
An analytical method was developed for the enumeration of microorganisms which grow in waste waters (retort water) derived from an in situ oil shale processing experiment (Laramie Energy Technology Center Rock S')rings Site 9 Experiment, Omega-9 retort water). These waters are high in hydrocarbon components which may be inimical in the environment, but subject to degradation by microorganisms. Growth of indigenous material populations occured rapidly in the retort water. A culture medium was developed for the appraisal of microbial proliferation which was compared with, and found to be superior to, standard media for the enumeration of pollution indicators.
An Annotated Bibliography Of Selected Topics In Coal Chemistry
The purpose of this literature review is to outline recent progress made in three specific areas of coal chemistry research. The emphasis of the review is on the past 15 years of research. The research areas covered are 1) the chemical nature of coal macrostructure(s), 2) the . identification of small molecules indigenous to coal, and 3) the separation and characterization methods for analyzing liquids derived from coal. A fourth section includes a discussion of research trends and recommended areas of research for WRI. Areas not covered by the review include the geology of coal, coal petrography, coal liquefaction and utilization, the inorganic chemistry of coal, and most experimentation involving physical property and solid-state analyses of coal., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Assessment Of Oil Shale Technologies
At the request of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, OTA has studied the history ans status of efforts to develop the oil shale resources in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The Committee’s request called for a complete assessment of shale oil recovery technology in general and of the current Federal Prototype Oil Shale Leasing Program in particular. The remaining chapters of this volume deal with the general context of oil shale development. The following subjects are discussed. • Chapter 3-"Constraints to Oil Shale Commercialization: Policy Options to Address These Constraints" -describes some alternative objectives that might be pursued to control the growth of the industry. Four development scenarios are used as a framework for identifying the obstacles that might inhibitor preclude the establishment of industries of various sizes before 1 990. (This analysis is based largely on information contained in the subsequent chapters.) The congressional policies that might be directed to these obstacles are then discussed. Given these obstacles and policies, the relative degree to which each scenario would attain each objective for development is then described. • Chapter 4-"Background"-describes the oil shale region, discusses the resources, outlines the processes for extracting shale oil and other materials, and summarizes the history and status of development efforts in the United States and abroad. • Chapter 5-"Technologies"-describes the mining and processing methods that could be employed to recover shale oil and to refine it to finished fuels. The advantages and disadvantages of the various processes are presented and their status summarized. Research, development, and demonstration needs are identified, and some possible Government policies are ,discussed. • Chapter 6-"Economic and Financial Considerations"-deals with the costs of recovering shale oil and with the risks that inhibit. oil shale projects. These risks include the absence of certainty about the capital cost estimates for commercial plants, the future of conventional oil prices and their impact on shale oil prospects, and the adequacy of U.S. equipment manufacturing and construction arid design capacity for rapid deployment pf a large industry. The need for Government subsidies is evaluated. A number of financial incentives are examined for their influence on the break- even price for syncrude from shale oil, the probability of project financial loss, and the net cost to the Government. No explicit attempt has been made to compare the economics of shale oil with that of other synthetic fuels nor with possibilities such as conservation or solar energy. Such a comparison is outside the scope and mandate of the present study. The chapter assumes that the commercial prospects of shale oil will continue to be determined until the end of this century by is cost and price relationship with conventional oil. • Chapter 7- "Resource acquisition" discusses the characteristics of the oil shale lands that are owned by the Federal Government and by private parties. The possible need for involving additional Federal land is related to the level of shale oil production that is desired, and to the provision of other types of encouragement, such as subsidies. The principal mechanisms for providing such land -leasing arid land exchange-are described and evaluated. Chapter 8-"Environmental Considerations"- discusses the implications of development for the environment and for the workers. Separate discussions are provided for the potential effects on air quality, water quality, land characteristics, and the health and safety of the workers. In each case the legal framework governing the effects is described, the potential impacts of development are discussed, the proposed control technologies are evaluated, and the areas of uncertainty are identified. A discussion is also included of the procedures that control the issuance of environmental permits for oil shale projects. Possible governmental policy responses are discussed for each area of concern. • Chapter 9-"Water Availability" deals with the implications of oil shale development for the region's scarce water supply. The water resources themselves are described, after the institutional framework that governs their allocation is discussed. Water requirements of conventional users are projected to the year 2000 and compared with the physical resources to determine if surplus water might be available to support an oil shale industry. Mechanisms and policies for making additional 'water available are discussed. • Chapter 10-"Socioeconomic Aspects" -deals with the effects of development on the small, rural communities the characterize the oil shale region. The population increases that might accompany development are estimated, and, the abilities of the communities to accommodate this growth are evaluate. The nature of the potential impacts discussed and possible policy responsible are presented. Volume II presents a history of the current Federal Prototype Oil Shale Leasing Program together with an analysis of a prior leasing attempt which, although unsuccessful, affected the character and conduct of the Prototype Program. The problems encountered the Program since its inception are discussed and the status of development on the lease tracts is described. The ability of the Program to achieve its original objectives is evaluated. Each aspect of this assessment is based on recent publications, on contractor report prepared for OTA, and on the independent investigations of the project staff. The results are current as of February 1980. It is important to note that the oil shale situation is in state of flux and that new developments magnificently alter the status and outlook, the industry and affect the accuracy of are conclusions presented herein.
An Assessment Of Opportunities And Market Potentials For Niche Market Products From Western Oil Shale
Since the inception of the Colony project 20 years ago, shale oil development efforts in this country have been primarily focused on large, 50,000 barrels-per-day types of projects. with projects of this size, only the major fuel markets can accommodate the production. Therefore, the emphasis has been on upgrading and refining shale oil for conventional transportation fuel. However, historically shale oil industries which were established in other parts of the world were able to establish a market entry by providing a variety of products. For the large projects, economics are driven by the need to match existing specifications for products sold into a commodity market. For smaller projects, it is possible that higher value products can be produced that will result in improved economic viability. In June 1987, the Oil Shale Action Committee, a coalition of private industry and government officials from Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, prepared a plan for western oil shale development. The plan defined an economic enhancement program consisting of five points: improved economics of shale, environmental studies, technology development, product upgrading and utilization, and research. This proposal addresses all of the above points. Economics is one of the major components of this study but the other four points are also an intrinsic part of the study. The objective of the proposed project is to assess the market potential for the various products that can be derived from oil shale and shale oil. This assessment will encompass a cradle to grave evaluation, i.e., from initial feasibility studies through site restoration, of an industry producing material for niche markets from western oil shale. The results of this study should expand the present knowledge base for fossil energy, helping to bring more efficient, economically competitive, and environmentally acceptable oil shale options into the marketplace.
An Echoing In-Situ Combustion Oil Recovery Project In A Utah Tar Sand
U.S. tar sand resources contain an estimated 30 billion bbl (4.7 Gm3) of oil in place in about 550 occurrences in 22 states. Over 90070 of the known resources are in six large deposits in Utah, each containing from I to 16 billion bbl (0.15 to 2.5 Gm3) of oil. 1 Four major tar sand deposits in Alberta, Canada, contain some 900 billion bbl (143 Gm3) of oil,2 and deposits in Venezuela and Colombia contain an estimated I to 1.8 trillion bbl (0.15 to 0.28 Tm3).3 The first U.S. DOE tar sand field experiment (LERC TS-IC) was conducted in Utah's Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit in late 1975. LERC TS-IC accomplished its two primary goals: (I) to demonstrate the feasibility of applying a reverse combustion process to a heterogeneous tar sand reservoir with a high average oil saturation and (2) to provide the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) research personnel with valuable experience in application of the combustion process and operation of its related equipment. Results of LERC TS-IC and supporting research are reported in several publications.4-14 LERC TS-IC provided encouragement for a second field experiment (LERC TS-2C) designed to use reverse combustion as a preparatory phase for forward combustion. LERC TS-2C tested the technical feasibility of the application of a combination thermal recovery process - reverse and forward combustion - for the in-situ extraction of oil from tar sands. The reverse combustion (preparatory) phase improved the natural reservoir conditions for application of the forward combustion (production) phase. However, the fire front moved through the pattern in a series of reverse and forward combustion phases (echoing combustion) during the experiment. The experiment was ignited in late Aug. 1977 and completed in Feb. 1978. More than 25% of the oil in place was produced in 183 days from a 13-ft (4-m) thick test zone at a depth of 350 ft (107 m) within a 40 x 120 ft (12 x 36 m) nine-well line drive pattern., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
An Economic Sensitivity Study Of UCG Based On Field Performance, Theory And Operational Experience
This paper provides the results of an economic analysis in which uncertainty has been minimized through the use of the following three types of information: < (1) theoretical and experimental correlations of underground coal gasification (UCG) operating parameters; (2) detailed process design based on operational experience; and (3) sensitivity variables. Design of the process has been carried out in considerable detail and is based on 5 years of operating experience during the Hanna field tests conducted by the Laramie Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy'. All equipment is recently commercially available. A number of sources have been considered for cost i<,d'orcnatio" < but ill most cases the pricing data used has been obtained directly from the vendors. Essential items which are often neglected such as piping accessories (flanges, flange bolts, fittings), high•temperature positive seal valves, flow controllers and air and gas metering equipment are included in the design and do have impact on the economics. Certain independent variables cannot be fixed with certainty--for example, gas 11eatillg values are known for short term field tests but rc- Elain uncertain for a long term Commnercial operation. Such variables are designated sensitivity variables and are allowed to vary over their entire probable range. Otller< sensitivity variables are percent gas loss, 11e11 spacing, and the volumetric combustion S\vepp efficiency (VCSE). Depth and thickness of the coal seam are also designated sensitivity variables because they are strictly site specific. A total of 1,296 cases have been considered in order to cover a full image of all sensitivity variables. Only dirty gas selling prices are. calculated in order to avoid assumptions concerning unproven methods of gas cleanup. Results show that the seam depth/thickness ratio is the most important variable 3.£fecting the economics of VCG. LOIv BTU gas from
An Environmental Assessment Of The Kentucky "Knobs" Oil Shale Region
The Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission (KNPC), established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1976, is mandated to protect Kentucky's natural heritage by establishing a system of nature preserves. The Kentucky Natural Heritage Program, a computerized data base, is employed by the KNPC as a method of identifying, monitoring, managing, and analyzing those features of our natural history considered threatened with extirpation from the state. These features include biological species, biological communities, ecosystems, geological structures, caves, or any type of natural feature. In 1981, under contract with the Office of Special Projects, Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet, KNPC conducted a preliminary survey of the Kentucky "Knobs" Oil Shale Region. The primary objective of this study was to obtain environmental data to facilitate the recognition of environmentally sensitive areas in the Kentucky Oil Shale Region. Information sources included the Kentucky Natural Heritage Program, field surveys, scientific literature, aerial photography, museum data, and contact with other scientists. During the study, 103 sites were visited, of which 16 were identified as being ecologically significant. Results of the study outlined in this paper are summarized in "Preliminary Assessment of the Ecology and Ecological Features of the Kentucky "Knobs" Oil Shale Region"., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection

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