Western Research Institute (WRI)

Primary tabs

This digital collection is a series of technical reports from WRI's Coal Gasification initiatives. Western Research Institute (WRI), located in Laramie, Wyoming, is a multi-million dollar, not-for-profit, research organization renowned for work in advanced energy systems, environmental technologies and highway materials research. The institute's corporate headquarters are on the University of Wyoming campus and a 22-acre Advanced Technology Center (ATC) north of Laramie that provides additional laboratories, plus pilot facilities and room for new development. WRI is a research institute with broad perspectives and know-how in science, technology and real-world, on-the-ground conditions. Their highly experienced team of men and women offer expertise from fields such as chemical, petroleum and environmental engineering, organic, physical, analytical and inorganic chemistry, geology, soil science, business administration and economics. Through our Cooperative Research Program with the Department of Energy, WRI originates technologies that attract industrial partners from corporations, industry associations, government entities, and other research organizations. WRI advances client technologies from concept to bench scale through pilot testing and commercialization. With the Federal Highway Administration, WRI conducts concentrated research that supports breakthroughs in materials knowledge, leading to safer, longer-lasting roads―experience WRI is able to bring to bear to meet client needs. WRI offers the full matrix of resources―experience, expertise, physical infrastructure and industry connections―to realize the potential of your concepts or ours. WRI extends your reach.


Pages

Applied Research And Evaluation Of Process Concepts For Liquefaction And Gasification Of Western Coals
Technologies for the conversion of coal to high-BTU gas are usually initiated by reacting the coal with steam and oxygen in the temperature range of 9500 C or higher. Direct reaction of coal with steam is practiced because water must ultimately be the primary source of hydrogen for such processes. The steam-coal reaction is highly endothermic and requires temperatures of the order of 9500 C or higher if the reaction is to proceed at a reasonable rate without an externally applied catalyst. Themolecular oxygen is introduced to react with carbon in the coal to produce the energy necessary to achieve and maintain the temperature for the reaction. The carbon monoxide thus produced from the oxygen and from the steam is to be hydrogenated to produce principally methane. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide must be greatly increased to accomplish this. Thermodynamic considerations demand that the reaction of carbon monoxide and more steam to produce molecular hydrogen must be conducted at temperatures of 4500 C or lower, if a hydrogen-carbon monoxide ratio of 3 or greater is to be achieved. This reaction must proceed TNi th the help of a catalyst. Following cleaning of this gas to remove H2S, C02 and other impurities, the carbon monoxide is catalytically hydrogenated in the temperature range of 4500e to produce methane. The hydrogenation reaction is exothermic. In a system such as this the introduction of molecular oxygen to react with carbon to achieve the necessary elevated temperatures for the steam-carbon reaction represents a severe energy penalty to the process. As much as 1/3 of the heating value of the coal, or perhaps more, is lost to the process through this sequence of events. It has been noted, however, that the overall process of converting coal to methane approaches thermal neutrality, if the entire process could be achieved at temperatures in the range of the methanation reaction. In as much as thermodynamics demand that the methanation reaction must occur at temperatures below 5000C if high methane yields are anticipated, it would be attractive to conduct the full process at temperatures below 50Qoe and do !tin a single reactor to gain the maximum benefit from the energy of the methanation reaction and to most nearly approach thermal neutrality in the process. This work is intended to investigate the various parameters and factors, including commercially available catalysts, which might make such a process possible.
Approach To Radium 226 In Produce Water
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
April - May 1993 Entech, Inc., Model TOS-80 Emissions Monitoring In Anchorage, Alaska Volume - I Text
Entech, Inc. retained Western Research Institute (WRI) to measure emissiqns from their Model TOS-80 thermal oxidation demonstration plant located at Anchorage, Alaska. The system,which has a nominal capacity of 28 tons per day of municipal solid waste (MSW) , consisted of a primary combustion/pyrolysis chamber where the waste was batch-loaded onto a grate. The MSW was loaded through the top of the primary chamber using conveyors without preparation other than a manual sort to remove large pieces such as wire rope. The contents of the primary chamber were ignited using natural gas as fuel. Once combustion was under way, the primary chamber was operated in an air-starved mode. The gases given off were incinerated in a secondary combustion chamber, which has provision for natural gas addition to maintain temperature. When the pyrolysis was near completion, the primary chamber was operated in an excess-air mode to incinerate the residual char. Much of the ash fell through the grate and was removed manually after burn completion. A typical burn excluding ash cooldown lasted about 12 to 14 hours. The ash could also have been allowed to accumulate between burns, and then removed after a series of burns. This was done for burns 5 and 6. A total of nine burns were completed during this test series. The burns were performed on alternate days starting on April 20 and ending on May 8, 1993. A listing of the burns is in Table 1. For each burn, WRI completed three particulate emission measurements (denoted particulate A, B, and e), three HCl emission measurements, one metals/mercury measurement, and one organic measurement. Results of emission measurements are presented in Appendix A. Particulate A was collected near the start of the burn;sampling about 15 minutes after the start of combustion in the primary chamber. Particulate B was collected near mid burn; beginning about 3 to 4 hours after the start of combustion in the primary chamber. Particulate e was collected approximately 8 hours after the start of combustion in the primary chamber. The times of sampling are noted on the data sheets (Appendix B). Following the burn, samples of the ash were collected for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests after the remaining ash cooled.
Aquifer Preservation In Coal development Areas
This paper addresses the extent of water resources impacts that western coal regions are experiencing as a result of surface coal mining activities, focusing primarily on the Powder River Coal Region. Hydrologic effects of coal mining are described and applicable federal regulations are summarized, including those relating specifically to western alluvial valleys. The cumulative impacts from extensive mining in the Powder River basin have not been assessed. However, in general insufficient field data has been collected to date to permit verification of the occurrence and geographic extent of the adverse impacts on western aquifers that have been predicted. Preliminary mine spoil leaching experiments have produced waters of similar quality to those found in the field under background conditions. The paper makes several recommendations for future research efforts that would assist in further characterizing the extent of the problem and the cumulative effects of large scale western surface mining activities. Judging the potential for preserving aquifers in western areas where intensive coal development is scheduled requires more detailed site specific documentation in light of existing regulatory programs., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Argonne National Laboratory Energy And Environmental System Division
Over the last 40 years, extensive research has taken place on the extraction of energy from the resources of oil shale, tar sands and coal. This research has been successful in developing processes which can extract energy from these resources, and more recently has generally concentrated on methods to improve present processes and technologies. This statement of work to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addresses the need to generate new ideas or novel concepts for the development of oil shale, tar sands and coal (particularly underground coal gasification) resources. Important to this program is the development of novel concepts related to Alaskan resources. The three resource areas to be examined all exist in Alaska, but unique environmental, climatic and physical conditions require new approaches to their development. The ANL Novel Concepts Program is designed to generate new ideas on resource development and processing which will be evaluated for their potential and ultimately emerge as the foundation for new research and development programs for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This statement of work from the Western Research Institute (WRI) is designed to generate new ideas and support for the Novel Concepts Program., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Articles Of Incorporation Of The University Of Wyoming Research Corporation
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Ashland Petroleum Company - AD 268
Work was initiated on February, 15, 1979, by the Ashland Petroleum Company Research and Development Department under contract number F336lS-78-C-2080 for Phase I of the "Military Jet Fuels From Shale Oil" program. This program is designed to provide sample quantities of military jet fuels produced from whole crude shale oil by means of the EXTRACTACRACKING process, as well as provide technical and economic data sufficient for a comparative feasibility analysis of this route for refining of crude shale oils. Table I delineates the four phases anticipated for the program. Phase I work has been completed, and Phase II begun., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Ashland Petroleum Company - AD 81-149
Work was initiated on February, 15, 1979, by the Ashland Petroleum Company Research and Development Department under contract number F336lS-78-C-2080 for Phase I of the "Military Jet Fuels From Shale Oil" program. This program is designed to provide sample quantities of military jet fuels produced from whole crude shale oil by means of the EXTRACTACRACKING process, as well as provide technical and economic data sufficient for a comparative feasibility analysis of this route for refining of crude shale oils. Table I delineates the four phases anticipated for the program, Phase I work has been completed, and Phase II begun., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Ashland Petroleum Company- AD 79-110
Work was initiated on February 15, 1979,by the Ashland Petroleum Company Research and Development Department under contract number F3361S-78-G-2080, for Phase I of the "Hilitary Jet Fuels From Shale Oil" program. This program is designed to provide sample quantities of·military jet fuels produced from whole crude shale oil by means of the EXTRACTACRACKING process, as well as provide technical and economic data sufficient for a comparative feasibility analysis of this route for refining of crude shale oils.Table I delineates the four phases anticipated for the program into military jet fuels. Phase I work, presently authorized and in progress, is designed to provide an estimate quality preliminary process analysis for the EXTRACTACRACKING refinery. All work required during this phase was defined in our original proposal by a detailed work breakdown structure (WBS) as shown in Table II. The remainder of this report will treat work completed and/or in progress within that WBS framework., [IsPartOf] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Aspects Of High-Resolution Gas Chromatography As Applied To The Analysis Of Hydrocarbon Fuels And Other Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures: Chromatographic System Details
Turbine engine fuels are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons which have until recently, been obtained almost exclusively from petroleum. There is growing interest in developing alternative feedstocks for the eventual production of high-quality turbine engine fuels. The major analytical technique for separating the chemical constituents and analyzing fuels and synfuel feedstocks is high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC), and the extreme chemical complexity of these hydrocarbon mixtures continues to challenge even the most sophisticated HRGC techniques. Therefore, the principal objective of this research was to identify and evaluate advanced HRGC instrumental procedures which show potential for improving the analysis of hydrocarbon jet fuels and various feedstocks. A gas chromatograph can be viewed as an assembly of individual components arranged to form a time invariant linear system. Accordingly, a systems approach has been used In this investigation to study, refine, and modify HRGC instrumentation. The chromatographic 11. AS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF HYDROCARBON FUELS AND OTHER COMPLEX ORGANIC MIXTURES, Volume I, Chromatographic System Details 19. analysis of a complex organic mixture requires a system capable of efficient, quantitative transport of solute molecules admitted to the system, and the injection of a complex broad-molecular-weight-range organic sample presents special problems to HRGCanalysis. An important topic relevant to complex, organic mixture analysis arid the generation of analytical data (qualitative and quantitative) is elutiori zone profile. The complete HRGC system must be capable of migrating, sensing, and eventually recording symmetrical zone profiles accurately. For maximum information content to be obtained ironian HRGC system, the output signal must be properly amplified and recorded. Also the many devices that handle and display the output chromatographic signal are especially important with respect to quality of the analytical information. In the future, aviation turbine fuels, along with geochemical and biomass feedstocks, will continue to be analyzed by HRGC, since research in this field and in this technique is quite active.
Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand Recovery Using The Rope Process
Major obstacles to the commercialization of tar sand are the high costs associated with mining and processing, the upgrading of the raw tar sand oil, and refining the upgraded tar sand oil to produce salable products. In order to encourage tar sand commercialization with much reduced financial risks, new processing technologies need to be developed. The overall objective of this research is to develop a new process that produces (1) oil yields greater than other existing pyrolysis processes, (2) transportation and aviation fuel feedstocks,(3) a diluent to decrease the pour point of bitumen for pipelining, and (4) a solvent for extraction processes. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPEC) process. The process, in its entirety, consists of four major steps: 1) preheating and extracting the hydrocarbonaceous material with product oil, 2) retorting the extracted material at a lower temperature [T <750 F (400°C)] with recycle product oil, 3) completing the pyrolysis of residue at a higher temperature [T > 750 F (400°C)] in the absence of product oil recycling and 4) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce the required process heat. WRI constructed and operated two reactor systems to test the ROPE process. The smaller system (2 - 4 kg/hr solids throughput capacity) is a 2-inch diameter process development unit (PDU) which is used to conduct a large number of short duration tests to determine optimum operating conditions. The larger system (20 - 40 kg/hr solids throughput capacity) is a 6-inch diameter bench-scale unit (BSU) which is used to conduct longer duration tests to confirm the optimum conditions determined in the 2-inch PDU tests. Previously, eight tests were conducted in the 2-inch PDU using Asphalt Ridge, Utah tar sand to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on the oil yield and product distribution, and also to produce samples for the evaluation of product oil characteristics (Cha, et al. 1987). A 30-hour test was also conducted using Sunnyside, Utah tar sand to obtain preiminary data.The product oil samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of hydrocarbon types, and to relate this distribution to that found in other fuel types. Results from these preliminary tests indicate the ROPE process will assist existing surface and in situ recovery process economics by producing a diluent to decrease the pour point of produced bitumen for pipeline transportation, and by producing a solvent for solvent extraction processes. The ROPE process also produces feedstocks for the production of unleaded gasoline and advanced aviation turbine fuel.
Assay Products From Green River Oil Shale 1982
Data from 66 material-balanced assays conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and The Oil Shale Corporation were compiled and analyzed to determine the pyrolysis stoichiometry for Green River formation oil shales originating in and near the Mahogany zone. Shale samples came from four sites in Colorado and one in Utah, and ranged in oil content from 12 to 258 L/Mg (3 to 62 gal/ton). Average values and pairwise correlation coefficients are reported for all data (except sulfur analysis) available on the shales, e.g., elemental analysis of shales and oils, distribution of organic carbon in products, gas composition, and some ratios of elemental composition. The wide range of organic carbon contents made it possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of assay product distribution to oil shale grade. A linear correlation for shale grade as a function of weight percent organic carbon in raw shale is presented. An average stoichiometry for pyrolysis of the organic material is also calculated and compared with others available in the literature.
Assay Products From Green River Oil Shale 1986
Data from 66 material-balanced assays conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and The Oil Shale Corporation were compiled and analyzed to determine the pyrolysis stoichiometry for Green River formation oil shales originating in and near the Mahogany zone. Shale samples came from four sites in Colorado and one in Utah, and ranged in oil content from 12 to 258 L/Mg (3 to 62 gal/ton). Average values and pairwise correlation coefficients are reported for all data available on the shales, e.g., elemental analyses of shales and oils, distribution of organic carbon in products, gas composition, and some ratios of elemental composition. Some sulfur data have been added to the assay sheets in the revised publication and appear with the stoichiometry and average values, but not with the correlation studies. The wide range of organic carbon contents made it possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of assay product distribution to oil shale grade. A linear correlation for shale grade as a function of weight percent organic carbon in raw shale is presented. An average stoichiometry for pyrolysis of the organic material is also calculated and compared with others available in the literature.
Assessment And Control Of Water Contamination Associated With Shale Oil Extraction And Processing
An integrated assessment of environmental control technologies applicable to shale oil development is reported. Air quality, water quality, potential surface disruption, potential problem areas, and research needs have been assessed, and finally, environmental control technologies have been indicated. The experimental program attempts to identify mechanisms and kinetics of trace element release from raw and spent shales, the effects of these releases on water quality, and methods for control of potential contaminants. Our study emphasizes the nature, extent, transport, and fate of contaminants occurring as waste and as an effect of retort parameters. Our experiments confirmed that concentrations of soluble species in product waters, laboratory-generated leachates, and natural water systems are controlled by the variables mentioned...
Assessment And Control Of Water Contamination Associated With Shale Oil Extraction And Processing - October 1, 1979 - September 30, 1980
The Los Alamos National Laboratory's research on assessment and control of water contamination associated with oil shale operations is directed toward the identification of potential water contamination problems and the evaluation of alternative control strategies for controlling contaminants released into the surface and underground water systems from oil-shale-related sources. Laboratory assessment activities have\focused on the mineralogy, trace element concentrations in solids, and leaching characteristics of raw and spent shales from field operations and laboratory-generated spent shales.....
Assessment For Off-Gas Treatment Experiments At The North Site 150-Ton Retort
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Assessment Of Impact To Wildlife At Seminoe II Mine, Hanna Basin, Carbon County, Wyoming
Site-specific baseline wildlife data (Mariah Associates. 1979a) for the Seminoe II mine permit area combined with the most recent mine engineering plan for this site (Arch Mineral Corporation. 1979) form the basis for the assessment of impacts to wildlife resulting from ongoing mining operations and proposed mine expansions. Assessments address impacts to all wildlife components resulting from both surface disturbance, development and operation of ancillary facilities, haul roads, railroad rights-of-way, powerlines and increased human presence in the general vicinity of the mine site. Table 1.1(b) presents the general categories of impact to wildlife expected from surface coal mining operations at Seminoe II mine and rates the severity of each impact on the various wildlife components present in the study area. This table forms the basis for all subsequent discussions of impact to wildlife at Seminoe II mine. Map 09-2 depicts areas of past. ongoing and future surface mining activities on the Seminoe II mine site and relates these areas to the known distribution of antelope and mule deer,raptor nesting sites and important wildlife habitat on the Seminoe II permit area. A brief discussion of the present mine operation and planned mine expansion activities precedes wildlife impact discussions. Impacts on wildlife from mining activities may be classified according to their duration either short-term or long-term. Short-term impacts would be those that would result directly from and occur during mining operations, but assuming reclamation efforts are successful would terminate after reclamation long-term impacts are those that would persist even after successful reclamation efforts. long-term impacts usually result indirectly from mining activities and are much more difficult to identify and evaluate (e.g., permanent reduction in local antelope population as a result of a decreased quantity of forage affected by changes in soil nutrient cyclying). Most of the inpacts indentified for Seminoe II mine resulting from surface mining activities can be considered of a short-term nature provied reclamation is successful. Also impacts may be directed at a number of different levels of population organization from the individual to communities, herds or groups to the entire population. Since most of the anticipated impacts at Seminoe II mine site are of a short-term nature, no lasting effects are anticipated at the population level. Accordingly, the individual or groups of individuals (e.g., herds) are the primary focus of the following impact assessment ,the elimination of small mammals or mammalian predators during mining activities but the recovery to baseline population levels after successful reclamation., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Assessment Of Research Needs For Oil Recovery From Heavy-Oil Sources And Tar Sands
The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J. W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A. W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.
Assessment Of The Cumulative Environmental ImpactsOf Energy Development In Northwestern Colorado- Final Report
The Colorado Department of Health's Office of Health Protection began this study in the fall of 1981 when oil shale development seemed inevitable. Since then, the oil shale industry has been dealt some serious blows. Some maintain that the industry's problems are terminal. Others insist that only the timetable for oil shale development has been set back. Our crystal ball is cloudy on the subject, but 2000 (the assessment year for the study) is still seventeen years away. This study makes no attempt to predict the likely level of energy development in the year 2000. The Colorado Department of Health's Office of Health Protection is responsible for air quality, water quality, radiation control, noise control, epidemiology and disease control. consumer protection, and solid and hazardous waste management programs in Colorado.Because of its environmental and health protection responsibilities, the Department finds the potential problems associated with projected energy growth in the six counties of Northwestern Colorado-Garfield, Rio Blanco, Mesa, Routt, Moffat, and Delta-to be of particular concern. The vast majority of Northwest Colorado's oil shale resources are located in two counties, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Together the six counties of the region produce 78% of the coal" 62% of the oil, and 33% of the gas produced in the State. Within this same region are uranium mining and milling operations, a proposed coal gasification (coal-to-hydrogen) project, and several existing major powerplants (with others either under construction or in an advanced planning stage). Nowhere else in Colorado does such a concentration of energy resources exist. Within this same region are a number of particularly sensitive areas including: two wilderness areas, Flat Tops and Mt. Zirkel; two national monuments,Dinosaur and Colorado; one wildlife refuge; habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species; and approximately 534,000 acres of cropland'. The Colorado Department of Health, in association with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),Region VIII, has undertaken this effort to study the cumulative environmental impacts of energy development in Northwestern Colorado in order to develop a better understanding of the potential environmental problems facing the region. This study examines the direct and secondary impacts of energy development on land, air quality, water quolity, solid and hazardous waste disposal and noise in the region. The study is meant as a general overview of these impacts. It is impossible to actually predict the environmental impact of oil shale development with any certainty, because oil shale pollution control technologies have never been tested on a commercial level.However, from work based on pilot projects and existing information some tentative projections can be made. Although the focus of this study is upon the operation phase of these energy operations, the study also attempts to address concerns that may arise during the construction and post-operative phases. One major assumption made throughout the report is that existing State and Federal environmental statutes and regulations will not be relaxed. Major revisions to sequences than those actually projected in this study. This study also assumes that all energy projects in the region will comply, either voluntarily or through various State and Federal enforcement mechanisms, with these laws and permit requirements. It should be noted that forced compliance of environmental laws and regulations could be costly both to Colorado and U.S.taxpayers. The report did not address the possibility that there will be a "crash program" to develop oil shale. It also did not consider the economic costs of compliance with current environmental standards. It is conceivable that compliance could be so costly that industry will attempt to relax environmental standards. These two concerns- a crash program and the relaxation of environmental standards-have been a longstanding concern to many citizens and State and local officials in Colorado. Energy development in the region currently must meet the requirements imposed by the following major Federal and State environmental statutes. Federal Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Endangered Species Act National Environmental Policy Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Safe Drinking Water Act Toxic Substances Control Act Colorado Air Quality Control Act Hazardous Waste Act Mined Land Reclamation Act Noise Control Act Solid Waste Act Water Quality Control Act A deliberate attempt was made not to make value judgements as to the relative importance of any particular environmental concern. This report should be useful in identifying areas where further research and planning are needed. More detailed environmental impact studies are being prepared by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and others. It is hoped that citizens of Colorado will find this report to be an understandable overview of a complex subject., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Associative Polymers For Mobility Control In Enhanced Oil Recovery-1st
Research during FY-86 has been centered on synthesis, characterization, and rheology of co polymers of acrylamide (AM) with analogs of 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (AMB). Emphasis during the initial phase of this work has been directed toward placement of hydrophobic substitutes along the polymer backbone which would allow intermolecular associations to occur at low polymer concentration. Comparisons of N-substituted AMB and unsubstituted co polymers prepared under a previous grant are being made. Of special interest are the viscosity behavior and the electrolyte tolerance. Rheological, potentiometry, and ion binding studies of the substituted models indicate less tolerance to calcium ions than the NaAMB/AM system and support the proposed intramolecular chelation we suggested previously (DOE/BC/1032l-20). Solution behavior has been studied as a function of micro structure and molecular weight for N-substituted AMB/AM co polymers utilizing potentiometry, turbidimetry in conjunction with C-13 NMR and low angle laser light scattering. N-propyl-substituted NaAMB/AM copolymers have shown surfactant-like characteristics including the ability to emulsify hydrocarbons and greatly enhance solution viscosity in aqueous solution. Further studies on these and other N-substituted acrylamido systems are planned for FY-87. We have continued to advance our EOR polymer characterization capability. A new variable angle laser light scattering apparatus has been designed and is presently being assembled. In the past, we were restricted to a technically obsolete low angle laser light scattering spectrophotometer. The new scattering device should provide a much higher signal to noise ratio, and thus, provide more accurate EOR polymer characterization.
Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Audit Plan For The DOE Environmental Audit OfWyoming Fossil Energy Sites
On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy Watkins announced a 10-point Initiative to strengthen environmental protection and waste management activities in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involves conducting Environmentai Assessments at DOE's operating facilities. The purpose of the Environmental Audit of selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming is to provide the Secretary with information on the current environmental regulatory compliance status and associated vulnerabilities of the facilities, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of environmental management programs. and response actions to address the identified problem areas. The scope of the Environmental Audit of Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming is comprehensive, covering all environmental media and Federal, State, and local regulations, requirements, and Best Management Practices (BMP). The environmental disciplines to be addressed in this Audit include air, soil, surface water, groundwater, waste management, toxic and chemical materials,radiation, quality assurance, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. Preliminary review of the Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming reveals that some of these environmental disciplines will have limited applicability due to the inactive status of most of the Wyoming Sites. The Audit also addresses the performance of environmental management functions and oversight by the Laramie Project Office (LPO) , the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METe), and the Headquarters Fossil Energy (FE) offices. At several of the Audit sites, activities unrelated to the DOE may currently be occurring. These are not included within the scope of the Audit. Only those activities/facilities within the authority of the Department (past or present) will be investigated., [IsPartOf] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Australian Oil Shales
The nonnuclear energy technologies to which this assessment is addressed include oil shale and coal gasification developments in the Upper Colorado River Basin. The study is not specifically concerned with other energy conversion processes, although the assessment of water availability for the two specified emerging energy technologies (EETs) is presented against a background of projected conventional energy developments. The objectives of this Upper Colorado River Basin l3(a) assessment are to assess, at a broad regional level of detail: 1. The Hater requirements of coal gasification and oil shale technologies (collectively referred to as EETs) and of the associated growth. 2. The availability of water for the potential development of these EETs and the associated growth. 3. The effects which these potential EET developments and the associated growth would have on the hydrology of the Upper Basin. 4. The effects which these potential EET developments and the associated growth would have on the water quality of the Upper Basin. 5. The estimated monetary cost of providing Hater supplies to these potential EET developments and associated growth. 6. The estimated monetary cost of managing the wastewaters which might be generated by these two EETs. 7. The social, economic, and environmental impacts which would result from the development of water supplies for these potential EET developments and the associated growth (including impacts resulting from reductions in the amount of water available to other water uses, both consumptive and nonconsumptive).
Aviaiton Turbine Fuels From Tar Sands Bitumen And Heavy Oils: Laboratory Sample Production
Phase II work performed on small bench scale laboratory units was to validate the process variables identified in Phase 1. As a part of this effort, samples (quantity SOO ML to 1000 ML) of JP-4 (Mil-T-5624L) , JP-8 (Mil-T-83133A), were produced and submitted to AFWAL for their evaluation. Detailed characterizations of the tar sand feedstocks and product samples were performed. From the data generated in Phase II, specific goals and tests were outlined for Phase III of the program.
Aviation Turbine Fuels From Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils: Laboratory Sample Production
Samples of specification JP-4 Mil-T-5624L, JP-8 Mil-T-83133A, and variable quality JP-4 samples were produced via pilot plant operations. Data generated from Phases I, II, and III, were used to 1) optimize the processing scheme, 2) generate process material and energy balances for a commercial sized plant, and 3) provide a detailed final flow diagram of the processing scheme, A final economic analysis was performed based on all contract data available.
Avoidance, Remediation Workbook
An array of techniques have been developed during the last several decades to abate or control pollution by acid mine drainage from coal and metal mines. Although most of these techniques are successful in eliminating or decreasing the deleterious effects of AMD in some situations, they are unsuccessful in others. Due to the inherent variability between mines, no one abatement or treatment technique is effective on all sites, and selection of the best method on each site is difficult given the array of methods available. The techniques also vary in the type and size of problem they are capable of handling. Their individual costs, effectiveness, and maintenance are also important considerations. Therefore, accurate information is needed to understand the limitations of the various methods and their response to various site variables. Continued research is imperative for field testing of existing technologies, as well as continued development of new technologies. At present, there is no authoritative guide or manual to assist in evaluating the best technique for a given situation. In order to continue to mine coal and other minerals without harming the environment, the best science and techniques must be identified and implemented in order to minimize the production of acid mine drainage. To accomplish this goal, the Acid Mine Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI) was organized to promote communication among scientists and engineers dealing with acid mine drainage, and to develop a consensus on the identification and optimum useage of each method. The intent is to provide information on selection of appropriate techniques for specific problems that will ultimately lead to a higher level of success in avoidance of AMD and remediation of existing sources, at a savings in cost and staff time, and with greater assurance that a planned technique will accomplish its objective. This effort will result in enhancement of mine drainage quality, improvement in stream cleanup and its cost effectiveness, and with widespread demonstrations will become in itself a technology transfer mechanism. ADTI is a coalition of State and Federal agencies, industry and private organizations, academia, and consulting firms. It is a technology-based initiative, not regulatory or political. ADTI is divided into two groups: prediction and avoidance/remediation. About 30 individuals constitute Group 2 (as listed in the acknowledgments), which focused on avoidance and remediation techniques. The group decided at its initial meeting on April 8-9, 1996 to produce a technology handbook that would describe the many techniques and a set of case studies from which conclusions could be drawn on the applicability and limitations of each technique. The handbook will address all types of mine drainage control and treatment methods, including generalized design and performance criteria, as well as historical case studies. Ultimately, the handbook should enable the user to select the best, technologically proven, most economical method suited to a particular situation. The handbook should provide design details associated with failure to avoid repeating inadequate and inappropriate methods. It should also aid in determining research needs and cost effectiveness for various options. This Phase I document summarizes the technologies and provides some relevant case studies collected by the various members. Further development of technologies, their description, and increased numbers of case studies will be included in a future document. The work to date has been largely volunteer in nature; support for time and travel has been met by individuals or their organizations without a specific budget for the ADTI work. Although considerable progress has been made, as indicated by this Phase I document, the lack of funding has limited progress, and the results must be considered preliminary. The initial focus has been on acid mine drainage from coal mining, mainly in the eastern U.S., because of the easier logistics in assembling a large group of experts in meetings, and because of the additional complications created by metal mine pollution. Although much of the discussion in this manual also applies to metal mine drainage, future work will contain more emphasis on drainage from metal mines. The handbook will be updated periodically to add new infornation from case studies and research, and as improved insights are gained on the optimum applicability of the various techniques., [Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
BLM-RIO BLANCO - Part 1- Statics
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
BLM-RIO- BLANCO - Part 2
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
BNA Analysis Of 36 Hoe Creek samples
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
BNA Results 09-18-89
Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Background Water Quality
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection
Baseline Conditions Soils And Overburden
[Is Part Of] Digitized Collection- Western Research Institute, Coal Gasification Collection

Pages