The phrase “fake news” has widely encapsulated the world following the election of Donald Trump to the office of President of the United States. Media outlets, both conservative and liberal, have come under attack from their opposing counterparts. The headlines which they run, rather than the substance of what is presented under that headline are now even more widely judged by the audiences who view that material than before. This paper, and the survey questions that accompany it, attempts to analyze whether the trustworthiness a viewer has of a certain headline, comes from the headline itself, or rather from the news outlet which runs it. The responses compiled widely support the hypothesis that individuals more times view trustworthiness with the name of the media outlet in television media, but those are not the same circumstances as other types of media.

This research paper is a macroeconomic analysis of the US higher education system with a financial twist to it. It begins by stating the problem with the US higher education system: tuition costs are high, public funding is decreasing, and therefore student debt numbers are almost unrecoverable. Next, it analyzes options for an 18-year old high school graduate toward attending (or not attending) college as a financial investment by using net present value calculations. These numbers help to shed further light on the aforementioned problem, and the paper closes with a proposed policy on how the US government already spends (toward higher education) the funds needed to pay for tuition for all in-state students, even with enrollment increases over 300%.

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been used as an additive in plastics as well as food storage cans. Concerns over the possible effects of BPA have caused many companies to avoid using the chemical. Here, we study the effect of BPA on the neural development of the Xenopus laevis tadpole, specifically the development of the visual system. For this study, tadpoles are reared in varying concentrations of BPA, and then visual system function is assessed at the behavioral, circuit, and single cell level. Our preliminary results suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of BPA significantly impact visual avoidance behavior. This behavioral deficit could be due to the observed decrease in synaptic activity. Additional experiments will be carried out to further characterize this decrease.

The well preserved skeletal remains of a young adult female from the pre-Hispanic city of Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico were analyzed during the Purépecha Biohistory Project in May of 2016. The bones of this individual display an array of proliferative new bone formation (PNBF) in the form of extensive periosteal reaction to the majority of the elements present. A differential diagnosis was conducted based on the types of lesions present and their distribution on the individual’s skeleton. Osseous responses similar to that observed on this individual have been credited to a variety of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, hepatobiliary disorders and endocrine disorders; thus complicating the diagnosis of a particular disease. However, through the analysis of several different diseases and their involvement of the skeleton, a diagnosis of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy appears to be the most applicable to this case.

Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to model the Andean coastline and reviewing literature to compile Holocene epoch archaeological sites are vital, preliminary steps in beginning research on an overall, interdisciplinary project currently titled: “12,000 Years of Life by the Sea: Bringing Holocene Archaeological Data to Bear on Human-Coastal Interaction and Contemporary Coastal Ecology and Conservation.” The greater project aims to address broad questions regarding long-term climate change, the periodicity and intensity of El Niño events, and coastal ecology and conservation through the application of archaeological data from the coastline of Peru. By modeling bathymetry, classifying potential coastline levels throughout the Holocene, and beginning to identify archaeological sites that contain evidence of the use of marine resources, researchers can prioritize future surveys and excavations, and begin to establish prehistoric baselines for marine fisheries. The greater project seeks to make archaeological data and analysis more relevant to critical issues in contemporary society. Through the preliminary research of this project, we can identify differences in sea levels through time, where prehistoric settlements were situated in relation to the changing coastlines, and better understand the intensity of prehistoric fishing and marine resource procurement. With this information, we can begin to address both present and future problems regarding sustainability, climate change, El Niño events, and the ecology and conservation of modern, industrial-level fisheries along the Andean coast.

This creative nonfiction piece focuses on the month I spent in Thailand and Cambodia the summer after my sophomore year of college. Through my work on an elephant sanctuary, I was introduced to the problems facing captive and wild Asian elephants and was inspired to research the impacts that people and industry have on elephant health and conservation. During this experience I was afforded the chance to explore not only the intricacies surround elephant care, but also my own stance on everything from elephant conservation to a greater examination of faith. Through working with elephants, exposure to the Thai and Cambodian culture, and a deep exploration of myself and my own stance on religion, I have come to the conclusion that a culturally inclusive stance on conservation is imperative for progress, the friends that you meet and keep impact you for the rest of your life, and God is, in fact, an elephant.

Bumble bee (genus *Bombus*) emergence time is affected by temperature, elevation, and is correlated with flowering time of diverse plants. Critical thermal limits of bumble bees is effected by elevation, latitude, and genetics. However, little research has been done examining variation in thermal tolerance of *Bombus* at high elevation throughout their active season. I sampled for abundance of several species of *Bombus* in Grand Teton National Park throughout the summer and tested for critical thermal limits. I found that bumble bees begin emerging in late May but didn’t appear in large numbers until late July. The most abundant species were *B. mixtus*, *B. flavifrons*, and *B. bifarius* with *B. mixtus* emerging the earliest.* *The critical minimum temperature did not vary between these three species while *B. mixtus* had a lower critical maximum temperature than *B. flavifrons*, and *B. bifarius.* This suggests a possible connection between emergence time and thermal tolerance that could be explored in further studies.

Ischemic heart conditions are some of the most prevalent disorders in the United States. These diseases also cause a significant number of mortalities each year. Despite considerable advances in treatment of the ischemic and infarct heart, many patients still develop complications and often progress to heart failure. These outcomes are typically related to factors such as the inability to deliver medication to the affected area, lack of successful stem cell implantation, improper tissue regeneration, and additional damage caused after reperfusion to ischemic tissues. The use of nanotechnology in the treatment of the ischemic and infarct heart has shown promising results for therapeutic improvement. This review focuses on several nanotechnology-based treatments for ischemic heart diseases including simple and modified drug/stem cell delivery systems ranging from magnetic, antibody-linked, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Additional nanotechnology systems such as nanoscaffolds and graphene compounds assist the repair of damaged cardiac tissue, therefore, increasing treatment efficacy. Based on these technologies, future models such as multi-functional nanoparticles should be considered for further advancement in this area.

Low rank perturbations of right eigenvalues of quaternion matrices are considered. For real and complex matrices it is well known that under a generic rank-$k$ perturbation the $k$ largest Jordan blocks of a given eigenvalue will disappear while additional smaller Jordan blocks will remain. In this paper, it is shown that the same is true for real eigenvalues of quaternion matrices, but for complex nonreal eigenvalues the situation is different: not only the largest $k$, but the largest $2k$ Jordan blocks of a given eigenvalue will disappear under generic quaternion perturbations of rank $k$. Special emphasis is also given to Hermitian and skew-Hermitian quaternion matrices and generic low rank perturbations that are structure-preserving.

Sequences of matrices with increasing size naturally arise in several areas of science, such as, for example, the numerical discretization of differential and integral equations. An approximation theory for sequences of this kind has recently been developed, with the aim of providing tools for computing their asymptotic singular value and eigenvalue distributions. The cornerstone of this theory is the notion of approximating classes of sequences (a.c.s.), which is also fundamental to the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz (GLT) sequences, and hence to the spectral analysis of PDE discretization matrices. Drawing inspiration from measure theory, here it is introduced a class of functions which are proved to be complete pseudometrics inducing the a.c.s.\ convergence. It is also shown that each of these pseudometrics gives rise to a natural isometry between the spaces of GLT sequences and measurable functions. Furthermore, it is highlighted that the a.c.s.\ convergence is an asymptotic matrix version of the convergence in measure, thus suggesting a way to obtain matrix theory results from measure theory results.

Let $\mathbb{H}^{m\times n}$ be the space of $m\times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{H}$, where $\mathbb{H}$ is the real quaternion algebra. Let $A_{\phi}$ be the $n\times m$ matrix obtained by applying $\phi$ entrywise to the transposed matrix $A^{T}$, where $A\in\mathbb{H}^{m\times n}$ and $\phi$ is a nonstandard involution of $\mathbb{H}$. In this paper, some properties of the Moore-Penrose inverse of the quaternion matrix $A_{\phi}$ are given. Two systems of mixed pairs of quaternion matrix Sylvester equations $A_{1}X-YB_{1}=C_{1},~A_{2}Z-YB_{2}=C_{2}$ and $A_{1}X-YB_{1}=C_{1},~A_{2}Y-ZB_{2}=C_{2}$ are considered, where $Z$ is $\phi$-Hermitian. Some practical necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution $(X,Y,Z)$ to those systems in terms of the ranks and Moore-Penrose inverses of the given coefficient matrices are presented. Moreover, the general solutions to these systems are explicitly given when they are solvable. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the main results.

The game LIGHTS OUT! is played on a 5 by 5 square grid of buttons; each button may be on or off. Pressing a button changes the on/o state of the light of the button pressed and of all its vertical and horizontal neighbors. Given an initial configuration of buttons that are on, the object of the game is to turn all the lights out. The game can be generalized to arbitrary graphs. In this paper, Cartesian Product graphs (that is, graphs of the form G\box H, where G and H are arbitrary finite, simple graphs) are investigated. In particular, conditions for which GH is universally solvable (every initial configuration of lights can be turned out by a finite sequence of button presses), using both closed neighborhood switching and open neighborhood switching, are provided.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and assess the need for exercise as a potential long term treatment for those suffering with ADHD. ADHD is difficult to treat long term as stimulant medication gives adverse side effects and psychosocial treatment is difficult to adhere to. This paper analyzed research in the field of exercise and psychology to identify the positive benefits of using exercise as a treatment for those with ADHD. Based on the results of the studies and the analysis of the information at hand, it can be concluded that more research is necessary to definitively prescribe exercise as an ADHD treatment, but studies in the field are promising at showing the positive benefits of exercise on those suffering from ADHD.

University campuses and other institutions across the nation struggle with installing and operating an internal and unified source of communication. In the era of e-mail, text-messaging, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, and many more software applications, college campuses in particular are always looking to adapt best practices and reach the maximum amount of people with engaging content. Here at the University of Wyoming (UW), many departments exercise their rights to distribute information to all of the students, anytime, at their own discretion. Consequently, the issue of oversaturation can occur. In this paper, a focus group comprised of students of varying age, gender, and major was chosen in order to identify problems that arise in association with all-student listservs at UW. The focus group acted as a catalyst to shape further research as the project progressed. Among the questions answered are: “Which organizations and departments send out emails?”, “What content and formatting is included in those emails?”, “How does someone get information onto that email?”, “Are these methods effective?”, and “Are there better ways to communicate electronically?”. The overall purpose of researching this topic was to discover whether a communication problem exists or not, to understand the network of departments utilizing mass communication, to gather institutional feedback, to gather student feedback, and to figure out what makes an optimal electronic message, ultimately proposing various recommendations that are in line with the obtained data.

I became involved with the following research on bleomycin analogs and DNA hairpins, after responding on a whim to a campus-wide email regarding a research position in the chemistry department. It has been roughly four years since I was hired by Dr. Teresa Lehmann to begin work on the project, in which time we have published three papers. As an undergraduate researcher I came to be involved in all aspects of the scientific process. For the research that is to be discussed herein, I was involved in the experimental design, sample preparation and data collection, as well as the analysis of complex two-dimensional NMR spectra. I also participated in the writing of the three papers and the presentation of our research at various seminar talks. Throughout my time as an undergraduate researcher, I witnessed the ways in which scientific endeavors can make a positive difference in society. This project specifically elucidates a complicated DNA:Drug interaction which had been previously under controversy due to inconsistencies within the field regarding experimental design. Ultimately, we produced results that could be used to guide the development of a more effective, and less toxic anticancer drug.

The following is to be a summary of the research I conducted while in the Lehmann group, including a reflection on how my involvement in this project has contributed to my identity at the University of Wyoming and beyond.

In Rwandan genocidal discourse, there is the vast memory of Tutsi deaths in the public domain but less for the Hutu. In many ways, Hutus are grouped together as genocidaires even though some of them were victims of the genocide. Privately, individualized accounts of Hutus possibly points to a potential disconnect between the public memory of the genocide and personalized accounts. Perhaps, a greater deal of focus on private memory is necessary to delve into the complexities. Individual narratives are useful in providing answers to questions regarding political, societal, and economic contexts of mass atrocities such as genocides. Through memory scholarship, a diversification of public understanding courtesy of personal stories is possible. An acknowledgment of other stories does not minimize conventional stories but open up spaces for more inclusive discourses.

For a graph G and a unary graph operation X, there is a graph sequence \G_k generated by G_0=G and G_{k+1}=X(G_k). Let Sp({G_k}) denote the set of normalized Laplacian eigenvalues of G_k. The set of limit points of \bigcup_{k=0}^\infty Sp(G_k)$, $\liminf_{k\rightarrow\infty}Sp(G_k) and $\limsup_{k\rightarrow \infty}Sp(G_k)$ are considered in this paper for graph sequences generated by two operations: subdivision and triangle extension. It is obtained that the spectral dynamic of graph sequence generated by subdivision is determined by a quadratic function, which is closely related to the the well-known logistic map; while that generated by triangle extension is determined by a linear function. By using the knowledge of dynamic system, the spectral dynamics of graph sequences generated by these two operations are characterized. For example, it is found that, for any initial non-trivial graph $G$, chaos takes place in the spectral dynamics of iterated subdivision graphs, and the set of limit points is the entire closed interval [0,2].

In this paper, we prove two results about the signless Laplacian spectral radius $q(G)$ of a graph $G$ of order $n$ with maximum degree $\Delta$. Let $B_{n}=K_{2}+\overline{K_{n}}$ denote a book, i.e., the graph $B_{n}$ consists of $n$ triangles sharing an edge. The results are the following: (1) Let $1< k\leq l< \Delta < n$ and $G$ be a connected \{$B_{k+1},K_{2,l+1}$\}-free graph of order $n$ with maximum degree $\Delta$. Then $$\displaystyle q(G)\leq \frac{1}{4}[3\Delta+k-2l+1+\sqrt{(3\Delta+k-2l+1)^{2}+16l(\Delta+n-1)}$$ with equality if and only if $G$ is a strongly regular graph with parameters ($\Delta$, $k$, $l$). (2) Let $s\geq t\geq 3$, and let $G$ be a connected $K_{s,t}$-free graph of order $n$ $(n\geq s+t)$. Then $$q(G)\leq n+(s-t+1)^{1/t}n^{1-1/t}+(t-1)(n-1)^{1-3/t}+t-3.$$

Let \eta(G) denote the distance signless Laplacian spectral radius of a connected graph G. In this paper,bounds for the distance signless Laplacian spectral radius of connected graphs are given, and the extremal graph with the minimal distance signless Laplacian spectral radius among the graphs with given vertex connectivity and minimum degree is determined. Furthermore, the digraph that minimizes the distance signless Laplacian spectral radius with given vertex connectivity is characterized.

Agricultural education may be a useful solution for increasing the United States education ranks worldwide. Moreover, inquiry-based learning has been shown to increase student achievement and interest in content. However, it is suggested that agricultural education teachers lack the resources and time to implement inquiry-based learning in their classrooms. My project involved creating a lesson resource database to provide inquiry-based lessons in agricultural education. I aligned the lessons with National Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Standards and published them online for any teacher to use. By the end of the project, thirty-one lessons were available for use.