The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8 percent to 3.4 percent hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: • non-moderated neutrons (fi ss; on neutrons of Cal i forn; um 252 (Cf252) source, denoted as NMD conditions), • non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source (MDI conditions); • neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source (MD4 conditions); and • neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source (MD5 conditions). The measurement system was adapted for oil shales using the optimized setups. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes (25 I x26"x7 11 ) with NMD, MOl, MD4, and MD5 conditions. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAl for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The response curves can usually be linearized by using MD4 or MD5 conditions (for el ements other than hydrogen) which pre-moderate the neutrons before they enter the sample box and allow the correct measurement of lean or rich oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water. The study shows that oil shale measurement on the belt or in the borehole by PGNAA technique is feasible. This method can detect, in belt geometry, the presence of 3.0 gallons of oil per ton of oil shale. The H, C, N, S and the ash elements listed above can be successfully analyzed by the PGNAA techniques.