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Turbine Fuels From Tar Sands Bitumen And Heavy Oils: Laboratory Sample Production
The conversion of domestic tar sands bitumens or heavy crude oils into aviation turbine fuels has been studied in small scale equipment to demonstrate the process scheme consisting of hydrovisbreaking the bitumen or crude residuum followed by catalytic hydrotreating or hydrocracking of the resultant naphtha or distillate fractions. Four different feed-stocks were employed; two were bitumens (from Kentucky or Utah) and two were heavy crudes from California. Significant operating parameters were examined for each process step. Prototype naphtha and kerosene type fuel samples compared well with JP-4 and JP-8 specifications, although fuels prepared from Utah bitumen (Sunnyside deposit) were deficient in freeze point. Initiation of Phase III, pilot plant scale evaluation of the process, is recommended.