WySR RSS Feed

Subscribe to WySR RSS Feed feed
Recent documents in Wyoming Scholars Repository
Updated: 12 hours 9 min ago

Magneto-Optical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Use in Medical Imaging

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Due to their non-toxic and magnetic nature, magnetite iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have potential uses in biomedical applications such as for MRI contrast agents. In this work, the physical properties of rare-earth element doped (Tb and Eu) and undoped iron oxide nanoparticles were optically investigated. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) from doped and undoped iron oxide nanoparticles in solution showed a well-defined excitonic absorption and weak PL. When the nanoparticles were drop cast into thin films, the absorption spectra remained unchanged while the PL disappeared, suggesting the thin film created non-radiative relaxation pathways. The magnetic properties of the excitons were examined using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), which is a measure of the difference in absorption under left and right circularly polarized light. Temperature- and field-dependent MCD was used to determine the effect of Tb and Eu dopants on the Fe3O4 excitons. To further characterize optical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and other materials, a spectrofluorometer was reconstructed for absorption and PL measurements. This consisted of wiring and controlling three motors to adjust the slit width and rotate a double monochromator using a microcontroller interface. The double monochromator was then calibrated and made available for optical measurements using a white light source.

What Qualifies As Crisis Coverage & Why Does It Matter?: Establishing Characteristics of Crisis Reporting Using 2015 Terror Attacks in Paris

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The Paris attacks serve as a recent and relevant example of the differences between regular news reporting and crisis reporting, based on the circumstances of the crisis in question. Three main aspects serve as dominant features in crisis reporting than in day-by-day reporting. These are timeliness, authority, and the level of the crisis (often the death toll or infrastructure damage). This paper will examine the Paris attacks from November 2015, the circumstances surrounding ISIS at the time, and the way news media reported on the crisis event. By taking these topics into account, one can see that although there are several problems with credibility that news media deals with, when a crisis occurs, the news media are still the first source of information a lot of people, globally, turn to for answers. The purpose of this research is to make reporters and citizens alike, aware of what influences their choice in news media, and determines what they believe as being credible. The best way to look at what makes the news credible is to look at a type of coverage which tends to have the least amount of room for partisan interpretation, a short amount of time for news updates, and an importance factor, often established by the severity of the crisis at hand.

Probing a Quantum Solid with Deuterated Acetylene

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The condensed phase is often thought of as a rigid, bulk composition of particles with severely restricted degrees of freedom – perhaps limited only to vibrational modes. In 1930, meditations on molecular rotation within crystals led Linus Pauling to the deduction that this behavior is merely natural, so long as the molecule in consideration possesses the appropriate mass and rotational quantum numbers. Little did he know, dynamical phenomena proliferate through other states of matter, like the quantum solid: a highly ordered array of particles capable of relatively large scale zero point motion about their mean lattice positions. Helium-4 is well known for superfluidity below the Lambda point, but a quantum solid will emerge with pressure and cooling. It turns out that there are only two known quantum solids, the second being solid parahydrogen (pH2); “normal hydrogen” comprises of a 3:1 ortho-/para-H2 ratio as a consequence of nuclear-spin statistics. Homonuclear molecular hydrogen lacks a transition dipole moment, however, the infrared signature of solid pH2 arises due to subtle anisotropic crystal field interactions that distort its spherical symmetry. In situ matrix isolation spectroscopy of a molecular probe such as dideutero-acetylene (DCCD) dispersed in crystalline pH2 via a rapid vapor deposition technique illuminates perturbations influencing the potential energy surfaces of the probe and host of this condensed phase environment. In this work, high-resolution FTIR spectra of DCCD-doped pH2 crystals recorded in the low-temperature regime (1.6–4.3 K) are presented. In particular, the rotational motion of DCCD about a pH2 vacancy will be elucidated.

Probing a Quantum Solid with Deuterated Acetylene

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The condensed phase is often thought of as a rigid, bulk composition of particles with severely restricted degrees of freedom – perhaps limited only to vibrational modes. In 1930, meditations on molecular rotation within crystals led Linus Pauling to the deduction that this behavior is merely natural, so long as the molecule in consideration possesses the appropriate mass and rotational quantum numbers. Little did he know, dynamical phenomena proliferate through other states of matter, like the quantum solid: a highly ordered array of particles capable of relatively large scale zero point motion about their mean lattice positions. Helium-4 is well known for superfluidity below the Lambda point, but a quantum solid will emerge with pressure and cooling. It turns out that there are only two known quantum solids, the second being solid parahydrogen (pH2); “normal hydrogen” comprises of a 3:1 ortho-/para-H2 ratio as a consequence of nuclear-spin statistics. Homonuclear molecular hydrogen lacks a transition dipole moment, however, the infrared signature of solid pH2 arises due to subtle anisotropic crystal field interactions that distort its spherical symmetry. In situ matrix isolation spectroscopy of a molecular probe such as dideutero-acetylene (DCCD) dispersed in crystalline pH2 via a rapid vapor deposition technique illuminates perturbations influencing the potential energy surfaces of the probe and host of this condensed phase environment. In this work, high-resolution FTIR spectra of DCCD-doped pH2 crystals recorded in the low-temperature regime (1.6–4.3 K) are presented. In particular, the rotational motion of DCCD about a pH2 vacancy will be elucidated.

Humic Acid Extraction from Powder River Basin Coal

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Extraction of humic acids from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to develop agricultural supplements as an alternative use for coal was our goal with this Senior Design Project. The result concluded that extraction from coal can be performed. The extraction method takes solid, surface coal and crushes it. Then potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid are added in separate reaction vessels to precipitate out the humic acid from the other salts. The coal will be taken out and sold as a byproduct, as well the other salts. The generation of the acid is done onsite and much of our steam and water is recycled within our process. The economic benefit of this project comes from the region of location. Wyoming has dry arid soil and a surplus of surface coal. This provides an alternative use for the coal that can’t be used, as well as improving the fertility of soil. Our 15-year project life yields a net present value at a discount factor of 10% to be $228 million and an IRR of 29.9%. The biggest risk factor for this project happens to be the market. Coal, acids, bases, and fertilizers all depend on the global economy and market. Other risk factors include environmental permitting and safety mitiation. In conclusion, the plant design has proven to be economical, beneficial, and profitable and humic acid extraction is a promising fertilizer for the future that could benefit the coal, as well as the agricultural, industry.

Humic Acid Extraction from Powder River Basin Coal

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Extraction of humic acids from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to develop agricultural supplements as an alternative use for coal was our goal with this Senior Design Project. The result concluded that extraction from coal can be performed. The extraction method takes solid, surface coal and crushes it. Then potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid are added in separate reaction vessels to precipitate out the humic acid from the other salts. The coal will be taken out and sold as a byproduct, as well the other salts. The generation of the acid is done onsite and much of our steam and water is recycled within our process. The economic benefit of this project comes from the region of location. Wyoming has dry arid soil and a surplus of surface coal. This provides an alternative use for the coal that can’t be used, as well as improving the fertility of soil. Our 15-year project life yields a net present value at a discount factor of 10% to be $228 million and an IRR of 29.9%. The biggest risk factor for this project happens to be the market. Coal, acids, bases, and fertilizers all depend on the global economy and market. Other risk factors include environmental permitting and safety mitiation. In conclusion, the plant design has proven to be economical, beneficial, and profitable and humic acid extraction is a promising fertilizer for the future that could benefit the coal, as well as the agricultural, industry.

Nitrogenated Covalent Organic Frameworks

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Graphene is a ground-breaking material with over twenty thousand patents involving its applications and modifications. It is the strongest, yet thinnest material known with semi-conducting properties. Extensive research has been performed on graphene to improve characteristics such as its conductivity, formation of holes and chemically manipulating its structure. Specifically, graphene is a two-dimensional, single atomic layer of graphite; which is an allotrope of carbon that is made up of tightly bonded carbon atoms organized into a hexagonal lattice. What makes graphene so special is its sp2 hybridization and nanoscopic atomic thickness (of 0.345nm). An alternative to graphene involves condensation reactions between amine containing compounds and carbonyl groups, which form a graphene-like nitrogenated derivative. These materials have ordered holes with high crystallinity. The organic synthesis of these compounds are well established and have been characterized as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). This amine/carbonyl condensation reaction can produce extremely high control of the lattice structures desired in the final 2-D material; this material can then be fabricated into membranes for applications in separations, batteries and more. The goal of my work on these nitrogenated materials is to chemically synthesize holey 2D materials with two distinctly different holes in the lattice. The two holes will be capable of chemical manipulation, which would potentially be superior to graphene. This gives rise to a variety of applications of the material, and its derivatives; which we hope to improve upon using these nitrogenated frameworks. The Blue French Horn: Intertwining

Trauma & Social Inhibition: The Association Between Trauma and Interpersonal Behaviors

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Clinical trauma is a pervasive occurrence and tends to impact the behavior of trauma survivors. Past research has examined the relationship between interpersonal problems and trauma; at the same time little research has examined the relationship between trauma type and associated interpersonal problems. This research sought to examine the difference in interpersonal problems displayed by survivors of varying trauma type. We separated our participants in three groups; sexual assault survivors, non-sexual physical assault survivors, and accident/natural disaster survivors. We found that sexual assault survivors tended to have higher rates of social inhibition and nonassertive behaviors than accident and non-sexual physical assault survivors. Gender differences did not significantly influence the interpersonal behavior findings.

Trauma & Social Inhibition: The Association Between Trauma and Interpersonal Behaviors

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Clinical trauma is a pervasive occurrence and tends to impact the behavior of trauma survivors. Past research has examined the relationship between interpersonal problems and trauma; at the same time little research has examined the relationship between trauma type and associated interpersonal problems. This research sought to examine the difference in interpersonal problems displayed by survivors of varying trauma type. We separated our participants in three groups; sexual assault survivors, non-sexual physical assault survivors, and accident/natural disaster survivors. We found that sexual assault survivors tended to have higher rates of social inhibition and nonassertive behaviors than accident and non-sexual physical assault survivors. Gender differences did not significantly influence the interpersonal behavior findings.

Medication Reminder and Tracking System

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Remembering to take medication can be a hassle for many people in the busy lives of today. Whether it be distractions of work or the novelty of a new medication, a missed medication is not uncommon. In many cases a skipped medication may just result in some discomfort or anxiety. However, in certain situations this can have dire repercussions. Disregarding humanities proclivity to forgetfulness some people with diseases such as Alzheimer’s are inherently impeded in this process. Alternatively, overdosing on medication and addiction are blatant problems as well. Subsequently, while these widespread problems cannot be solved by one initiative or another the integration of the Medication Reminder and Tracking System is designed to help attenuate these issues. The basic premise of this project is to provide a reliable reminder system throughout the day. If you didn’t take your medication the device will send a reminder through Wi-Fi to a phone app. The system dispenses medication, tracks whether you have taken medication, and uploads this information to a database so someone can reference this information latter. In terms of theft and overdosing, it provides reliable security and warning systems. Therefore, this device sends an alarm if it’s being tampered with as well as if someone has forgotten medication repeatedly. Also, if medication has been taken it will not dispense medication unless the emergency override is utilized.

Methane Cracking

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The purpose of our design project is to produce a high purity hydrogen product that emits a low concentration of carbon dioxide emissions. The objective will be to replace the current industrial standard of steam reforming which doesn’t produce a marketable byproduct as well as producing high amount of carbon dioxide emissions. Throughout the semester, we have researched different processes to crack methane which included the Hazer process, plasma pyrolysis, nickel based catalysis, and direct contact pyrolysis of natural gas using a molten metal. For this project, we decided to design a process based off direct contact pyrolysis due to its ability to produce product with a high conversion as well as not needing significant amounts of water for the reaction along with producing significantly less carbon dioxide emissions. With this process, we learned that it emits nearly half as much of the CO2 as steam reforming. [27]. The molten metal catalyst for this process adds residence time to the reaction and increasing the conversion of reactants to products. We found tin to be the most common in past laboratory trials due to tin’s high boiling point, relatively low melting point, and high density. These properties seem ideal for this process since tin acts as a natural separator for our product and byproduct.

Effect of Neonatal Iron Supplementation on Microglial Activation in Huntington’s Disease Mice

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the atrophy of portions of the brain that control movement, cognition, and personality. Currently there is no therapeutic cure for HD. One change to the brain environment in HD affected individuals is neuroinflammation, this could drive HD progression, but the mechanism is not well understood. Microglial cells, the immune cells of the brain could be a main component of this neuroinflammation and can be activated by oxidative stress. The research team led by Dr. Fox has previously found that supplementation of neonatal mice with iron, worsens the effects of HD and promotes oxidative stress in brain. The aim of this project was to understand if neonatal iron supplementation in HD mice promotes microglial activation. Findings will be relevant to understanding human HD. The initial goal of the research was to validate the microglial cell staining and analysis methods in our own laboratory. We would then utilize these techniques to assess the effect of neonatal iron supplementation in HD and wild-type mice.

Speaker Classification through Deep Learning

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has long found that it is the things that humans find very easy to do that are most difficult to achieve. An example of this is the task of sound analysis. Humans are quite adept at making accurate classifications about a speaker based solely on the sounds they make during speech. These classifications include the gender, age, and natural language, to name a few. While such a task seems very simple to most of us, it represents a major challenge for an AI. Such a program could be used in a number of applications, including phone based classification of speakers and speaker verification. The goal of this project was to use deep learning to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify speakers from recorded audio. We trained this network using the Speech Accent Archive as the training dataset. This data includes more than 2300 speaker recordings of a paragraph that is designed to cover all of the sounds in the English language, complete with meta-data labels for each speaker. Our software is able to load saved ANNs to be trained, analyzed, or used for classification.

Speaker Classification through Deep Learning

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has long found that it is the things that humans find very easy to do that are most difficult to achieve. An example of this is the task of sound analysis. Humans are quite adept at making accurate classifications about a speaker based solely on the sounds they make during speech. These classifications include the gender, age, and natural language, to name a few. While such a task seems very simple to most of us, it represents a major challenge for an AI. Such a program could be used in a number of applications, including phone based classification of speakers and speaker verification. The goal of this project was to use deep learning to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify speakers from recorded audio. We trained this network using the Speech Accent Archive as the training dataset. This data includes more than 2300 speaker recordings of a paragraph that is designed to cover all of the sounds in the English language, complete with meta-data labels for each speaker. Our software is able to load saved ANNs to be trained, analyzed, or used for classification.

Court Decisions after Strickland v. Washington: The Evolution of Ineffective Assistance of Counsel Requirements in Federal and State Courts

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The landmark case of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) established the right to assistance of counsel for all indigent defendants. However, it did not guarantee a right to effective assistance of counsel. An attorney must be more than a warm body standing next to a defendant. Strickland v. Washington (1984) established that not only do defendants have a right to assistance of counsel, but they must also have effective assistance. The Strickland decision established a two-part requirement in order for a defendant or petitioner to show ineffective assistance. After Strickland, the federal government continued to make decisions based off of these requirements, sometimes expanding and sometimes contracting the requirements, however, never steering too far from the Strickland test. States such as Wyoming and Colorado have continued to uphold the Strickland test. Though, states like New York and Hawaii viewed the requirement as too high, in turn these states lowered the bar for the ineffective assistance of counsel requirement. Few states have changed from Strickland indicating that the standards are fair, but the states that have changed, take a hard stance that the 6th Amendment’s right to counsel has not been vindicated because the standards to show ineffective assistance are too high, resulting in only extreme cases finding ineffective assistance of counsel.

Court Decisions after Strickland v. Washington: The Evolution of Ineffective Assistance of Counsel Requirements in Federal and State Courts

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

The landmark case of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) established the right to assistance of counsel for all indigent defendants. However, it did not guarantee a right to effective assistance of counsel. An attorney must be more than a warm body standing next to a defendant. Strickland v. Washington (1984) established that not only do defendants have a right to assistance of counsel, but they must also have effective assistance. The Strickland decision established a two-part requirement in order for a defendant or petitioner to show ineffective assistance. After Strickland, the federal government continued to make decisions based off of these requirements, sometimes expanding and sometimes contracting the requirements, however, never steering too far from the Strickland test. States such as Wyoming and Colorado have continued to uphold the Strickland test. Though, states like New York and Hawaii viewed the requirement as too high, in turn these states lowered the bar for the ineffective assistance of counsel requirement. Few states have changed from Strickland indicating that the standards are fair, but the states that have changed, take a hard stance that the 6th Amendment’s right to counsel has not been vindicated because the standards to show ineffective assistance are too high, resulting in only extreme cases finding ineffective assistance of counsel.

Forms of Muliebrity

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Crafts are often undervalued in the broader ‘art world’ and are not bestowed the same respect as fine art. Traditional as well as contemporary craft pieces are as significant as many pieces in museums, and, though women were not seen as equal to male artists throughout much of art history, they were just as essential in sculpting the art world that we know today. If everyone were to appreciate craft, including the craft of different cultures, we would gain an understanding of ourselves as a species rather than be defined by divisions in cultures. Through combining various art history concepts and ideas as well as imagery into functional forms, I argue for the importance of craft, the handmade, and art history. I used different forms of ceramic techniques to create a handmade tea set but by carving out a William Morris floral pattern from the Arts and Crafts movement, I negate the functionality of the set. I reference craft and art history through the functional objects, the material of clay, and the pattern. I finished the set with a celadon glaze, which has a long history through Asian crafts and functional vessels as well. Art has played a vital role in the progress of history, and though craft is sometimes seen as frivolous and insignificant in the face of future advancement, looking back at how it has helped us shape our world today can help us grow in any number of fields including education. Allowing arts and crafts to disappear would have countless negative consequences on not only the present, but future generations to come.

Forms of Muliebrity

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Crafts are often undervalued in the broader ‘art world’ and are not bestowed the same respect as fine art. Traditional as well as contemporary craft pieces are as significant as many pieces in museums, and, though women were not seen as equal to male artists throughout much of art history, they were just as essential in sculpting the art world that we know today. If everyone were to appreciate craft, including the craft of different cultures, we would gain an understanding of ourselves as a species rather than be defined by divisions in cultures. Through combining various art history concepts and ideas as well as imagery into functional forms, I argue for the importance of craft, the handmade, and art history. I used different forms of ceramic techniques to create a handmade tea set but by carving out a William Morris floral pattern from the Arts and Crafts movement, I negate the functionality of the set. I reference craft and art history through the functional objects, the material of clay, and the pattern. I finished the set with a celadon glaze, which has a long history through Asian crafts and functional vessels as well. Art has played a vital role in the progress of history, and though craft is sometimes seen as frivolous and insignificant in the face of future advancement, looking back at how it has helped us shape our world today can help us grow in any number of fields including education. Allowing arts and crafts to disappear would have countless negative consequences on not only the present, but future generations to come.

Nazi Archives and the Americans: From Legal Evidence to NARA Record Group

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Archives, as institutions, hold the documents that are the basis for every country’s history. The documents held within are the framework and foundation of governments and organizations and when thought of as spoils of war, can help the invading country better run their new territories. In the case of Nazi Germany, thousands of documents recording everything from the inner workings of the Reich Security Main Office to the laws governing Jews and the subsequent concentration camps fell into the hands of the Allies as Germany surrendered. These documents helped build the framework of the Nuremburg War Trials and gave tremendous information and aid to everyone from the U.S. military, to intelligence organizations, to historians writing accounts of World War II. The documents that were in American control ended up in Washington D.C., at the National Archives and Record Administration (NARA) where their return back to Germany in the 1990s would become a controversial issue in archival history. The goal of this project is to follow the provenance and uses of the Nazi archives from their capture during World War II through their subsequent uses and their establishment as a NARA Record Group. While following the history, certain case studies are used to demonstrate the significant uses of German material as well as examining American conceptions of their archival structure, such as the creation of the Berlin Document Center, to assist in their use in the Nuremburg Trials and other postwar policies.

Upper Dinwoody Projectile Points: Killing Tools From the Pleistocene to the Little Ice Age

Wed, 2017-06-28 05:25

Central Wyoming College archaeology students have discovered a series of prehistoric sites along most of the trail leading to Gannett Peak and the Dinwoody Glacier. These sites provide evidence that people have lived and foraged for food at elevations up to 12,500 feet above sea level in the Wind River Mountains. The oldest identified so far was part of the Goshen Culture, over 11,000 years ago and only recently arrived from Berengia at the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. That site was identified by the type of spear point recovered there. Other projectile points are used to date sites through the entire span of human presence in North America perhaps to the middle 1800s at the end of the Little Ice Age. This poster describes and discusses the various types of weapons that human hunters have used to obtain food and defend themselves in the high alpine of northwest Wyoming.

Pages