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The global fisheries crisis is a topic of significant research across fields, including economics. It is evident that the current global fish stocks are declining, which has motivated environmental protection measures to be implemented. Low-income countries and their inhabitants are unevenly harmed by these environmental impacts, as artisanal fishing villages are dependent on fisheries for subsistence and livelihood. This case is particularly true in Sierra Leone, where poverty is evident, artisanal fishing communities exist, and dependence on fisheries is high (Kassam, et al. 2017; Teh, et al. 2016). Policy makers in these countries are faced with the challenge of mitigating environmental disasters while still ensuring that livelihoods of local people are protected. The present paper argues that an econometric model would provide useful, empirical evidence to these policy makers as to the specific factors of livelihood, responding to the question: which factors in the livelihoods of low-income artisanal fishers are most significant, and therefore should be considered in policy decisions? The econometric model in this paper follows the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach to environmental protection and poverty reduction (Krantz 2001). Livelihood, measured by the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index, is explained by economic, social, and environmental variables in a sustainable livelihoods framework. Results and viability of this model are discussed, followed by a discussion of further research to sharpen these results. The model is then tested to show its practical application for policy-makers in maximizing poverty alleviation outcomes. Research concluded that insufficient data has caused present results to be relatively inconclusive for Sierra Leone today, but the model design and rationale can be useful given a substantially larger dataset.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Federation Internacionale de Football Association (FIFA) represent the legacy of premier athletics, economic development, and globalization. Cities around the world fight to host these premier events and showcase the beauty and robustness of their community. The construction of venues for these games adversely affects local populations. This paper attempts to address the arguments for showcasing such events, despite the local population displacement they cause. Using an examination of current literature on the topic, I attempt to provide a picture of the local impact of mega sporting events. I will look at how three forms of legitimacy provided by states as justification for hosting are often not based in reality. I will argue that economic legitimacy influences a state to host games based on perceived benefits that do not reach the majority of the population, especially the poor. The second form of legitimacy, inherent legitimacy, focuses on the way that different types of spending are legitimized or not legitimized by the international community, and how spending on sports has an inherent legitimacy that for example, military spending does not. Finally, I will argue that legitimacy through terminology, such as marketing the perceived benefits to the community of the event, has adverse effects on local populations that are often ignored.
One of the major challenges in the theatre is communication. With casts of over 20 and design teams of almost 15, making sure everyone is in contact with everyone else is a feat to say the least. Of course, we all have email, Facebook, text messages, etc., but for the University of Wyoming’s production of The Tender Land by Aaron Copland, I wanted to find a better way to help bridge the gap between the actors, the design team, and the stage management team. I have created a website to act as the hub of communication for everyone involved with the production. It includes pages for schedules, photos, announcements, reports, and everything else involved in the mounting of a production. My goal was to see if creating a website would help everyone involved be more informed about the rehearsal process, and to create a sort of time capsule of the production that the designers, actors, and other faculty could access long after the production closes. In this presentation, I will explain how I made the website, how I chose what got put on it, and whether I accomplished my goals or not.
Copyright term extension is often a contentious topic among copyright owners, corporate lobbyists, and opponents of copyright extension. The history of copyright law spans more than 225 years and has always been an ever-evolving process. The Copyright Act of 1790 was the first statute in the United States to identify definite provisions of copyright law and permitted authors the right to their intellectual property for a duration of 14 years. Today, depending on the type of work, copyright terms can reach up to 120 years. Historically, Disney has been exceedingly protective of their intellectual property and is a prominent supporter and lobbyist for copyright term extension (Bernaski, 2014). Disney’s involvement in copyright term extension originates from their goal to prevent their copyrights from entering the public domain, specifically their Mickey Mouse character. This paper examines the history of copyright law in the United States, copyright case law, Disney’s involvement in copyright term extension, various arguments for and against copyright term extension, and the future of copyright law.
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a rare congenital disorder that occurs in 1 in 10,000 live births. The goal of this research project was to further understand the impact of caregivers on children with disabilities, specifically CdLS. The purpose of this research project was to critically analyze the caregivers of those with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, using the social model of disabilities as a theory and Derrida’s “structure” as a method; I argued caretakers of those with disabilities, specifically CdLS need to be given support, as well as resources, in order to maintain a healthy environment and family for the individual with special needs. In the study, it was found that caregivers would like more resources for their child, whether that be awareness, respite, or long-term care facilities.
Key words: caregiver, Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), disability, resources, respite
The qualitative case study investigated the relationship between high-quality professional development for place-based education and long-term impacts on teacher practices. The case study focused on a small subset of teachers who attended all four years of the PLACE (Place-based Learning and Civic Engagement) program from 2011-2014. This study was built off a previous program evaluation of PLACE. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the PLACE professional development's long-term impact on teachers' perceptions and practices and the teachers' implementation of place-based education. The data collection methods for this study involved interviews, observations, and surveys. Based on the data collected from the small sample of teachers, the evidence suggested that the program impacted the teachers' practices to various degrees and their implementation of place-based education varied by teachers. The results identified the continuous, experiential, and collaborative structure of the PLACE program as factors for the program's long-term impact on teaching practices. Recommendations and limitations are included.
The current research evaluated the long-term effects of a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) experience on preservice teachers’ conceptual change and affect. To evaluate the lasting effects, four students from a physical science class were interviewed one year following their experience in a CAVE simulation in which they learned about molecular density. For each participant the interview produced a transcript of his/her spoken responses and a drawing that was compared to the drawing s/he had done the year before. The results of the research showed that participants manifested both positive and negative affect in regard to their CAVE experience. Positive affect was most common in recalling the CAVE experience itself, while negative affect was most prevalent when recalling specific content learned. All four participants retained changes in conceptions from their time in the CAVE. However, these conceptual understandings consisted of both accurate information and misconceptions.
The Effect of Dancers’ Clothing on Perception of Performance Ability
Mariah Brewer, Jennifer Deckert
Department of Theatre and Dance
University of Wyoming
Oral and Poster Presentation
Honors Program Rapid City, South Dakota
Dancers spend several hours a day training in studios where mirrors are present. Observations in the mirror serve as feedback for establishing line, unison, and clarity, and may also impact their perceived performance. As such, clothing may also influence perception of performance ability. This study explores clothing as a potential contributing factor to a dancer’s perceived self-confidence and performance ability while executing movement.
This descriptive research study is expected to have 8-10 participants and will ask participants to perform a two movement phases in a dance studio with mirrors under two different clothing conditions. Immediately following each of the participant’s performances with each clothing condition, they will be asked to take a questionnaire to evaluate their perceived performance. Participants will be asked to arrive a week later to view a video of each phrase for each condition and given the questionnaire again, after viewing their performance.
Although usable data has not been collected, a pilot study has been conducted. The hypothesis of the study is that the tighter fitting clothing option, compared to the loose-fitting clothing, and regardless of movement type, will have a negative effect on dancer’s perception of their performance ability. The data from this research will enhance current knowledge and promotion of dancer wellness, regarding psychological health and overall dancer well-being.
This research has been approved for use of human subjects by the University of Wyoming IRB.
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder affecting approximately 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The symptoms of schizophrenia are positive, negative, and cognitive in nature, but the effects of schizophrenia have far more widespread effects than these. There are several causative theories of schizophrenia, including the dopamine hypothesis, glutamate hypothesis, dendritic spine abnormalities, and immune system involvement. These theories have provided proposed pharmacological targets, giving rise to numerous antipsychotic drugs. Despite the modest effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs, their systemic side effects are severe and plentiful. These side effects only add to the countless, inherent side effects that accompany this disease, the most notable of which are described in this review. Quality of life is severely impaired in schizophrenia patients, with stigma being a significantly contributing factor. This review, as well as the accompanying dance video, aim to portray the large extent to which schizophrenia affects the whole person.
John Milton and Herman Melville, despite 184 years and an ocean of separation, created two of Western literature’s grandest rebels in Satan and Ahab. I propose that these two characters are blueprints for a literary type, that of the fallen revolutionary. Both assert their own equality and try to overthrow the power structures that they feel oppress them in their respective settings, but both, instead of destroying the inequality that drove them to rebel, betray their own cause and comrades by serving only themselves. Both Milton and Melville advocated for increasing political democratization within their societies; Milton fought against the monarchy, while Melville was a whole-hearted believer in the American democratic experiment. In Paradise Lost, Milton creates Satan as an opponent to the monarchical Father in Heaven, but who fails to carry out his revolution completely, as he becomes a tyrant in hell obsessed with destruction rather than a liberator intent on creation and freedom. In Moby Dick, Ahab is rebelling against what he feels is the metaphysical inequality of the universe that manifests itself in the white while; he too rails against divine oppression, but he too establishes himself as a tyrant aboard the Pequod seeking only to raise himself above his peers rather than enable the freedom of all. Neither rebel’s principles can be wholly discounted, but we also must move beyond their example and recognize the need to fully free ourselves from tyranny and embrace our collective humanity through more communitarian and compassionate philosophies.
Tourism in Latin America has exponentially increased in the past couple of decades. Two major sectors of this tourism boom have been voluntourism and ecotourism. Voluntourism is defined as “a form of tourism in which travelers participate in voluntary work” (Oxford, Dictionary, 2018). Of course, as its name implies, ecotourism is the form of tourism focused on sustainability. These forms of tourism intersect with World-Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF). In its essence, WWOOF is an online forum that serves as a route for volunteers to connect with local farm owners, leading to a stint of voluntourism on an organic farm (FoWo, 2018). Although WWOOFing is not the most frequent form of either ecotourism, nor voluntourism it is prevalent enough that an in-depth analysis of its effects economically and socioculturally, is imperative to understanding the entire picture of ecotourism/voluntourism in rural Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).
Incarcerated women historically have prior membership in marginalized communities, resulting in high rates of under-education, unemployment, single parenthood, poverty, intimate partner abuse, and low self-esteem. This 6 week-long book study curriculum, grounded in transformative learning theory, is designed to wholeheartedly foster the educational growth of female inmates through development of self-competence and specific life skills in areas of literacy, oral communication, and critical thinking. Through engaging, collaborative, and critical exploration of a woman’s memoir entitled Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail, incarcerated women will reflect on their lived experiences and their place in family and society. Regarding these female inmates as life-long learners, this book study curriculum consists of five thematic parts: The Ten Thousand Things, Tracks, Range of Light, Wild, and Box of Rain This self-inquiry learning, coupled with empathic group discussions, will bring awareness to shared experiences, social struggles, personal conflicts, and reflective thinking. The ultimate outcome of this book study curriculum that the author hopes for is empowerment for incarcerated women to develop new habits of heart and mind on life, family, and the world in which we live.
Educational scholars commonly identify teachers as the primary in-school influence for increasing student achievement therefore, principals need to focus on improving teacher effectiveness through formative supervision. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in perceptions towards the formative supervision of teachers between more experienced and less experienced principals. Formative supervision allows principals to monitor, assess, and systemically address teacher performance with the intent of improving their practice. Guided by current literature, different aspects of formative supervision were constructed, the analyses indicated that certain sets of formative supervision constructs had no significant differences when comparing the grouping variables of principal experience. However, principals with more than three years of experience had a significantly different perception about their abilities to improve teaching through formative supervision than principals with less than three years of experience. More experienced principals indicated a higher level of confidence in improving instruction, as well as a preference for written feedback typically found in performance evaluations and not necessarily in walkthroughs where the principal has the option for oral feedback.
Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices. It is shown that if $p=2$, $4\leq p<\infty$, or $2
In this paper, an upper bound for the CP-rank of a matrix over a tropical semiring is obtained, according to the vertex clique cover of the graph prescribed by the positions of zero entries in the matrix. The graphs that beget the matrices with the lowest possible CP-ranks are studied, and it is proved that any such graph must have its diameter equal to $2$.
During my research semester, I have had the opportunity to work with a group of thirty, third-grade students to improve and grow in my teaching before I have my own classroom. My practicum experience was in the heart of Denver at Teller Elementary School. My cooperating teacher is in her 34th year of teaching; she has taught and guided me through additional ways to research. The purpose of this practicum experience was to learn how to support and grow future students in their needs academically and social-emotionally.
The capstone project assigned is a project that is assigned countrywide and purposed to measure student teachers before they enter the classroom. Some states require a passing grade on this assessment in order to become a licensed teacher in that state. This process is called ed-TPA (Education Teachers Performance Assessment). The overall process of ed-TPA is to have pre-service teachers learn how to best enter the classroom and practice, through research, planning, and reflection.
Within this project, I was instructed to reflect on my teaching using extensive research and planning. Through this project, I was able to learn how to best meet the needs of a large group of students that have a great range of comprehension of varying content areas.
Presenting in Undergraduate research day, I would like to share and reflect on my time being a student teacher. I would like to share what I had the opportunity to learn throughout my entire semester planning, researching, and teaching.
Lateral bias (also referred to as lateral preference) is defined as an “innate bias for one side or the other” (Kimmerle, 2010). “Side” of the body is a reference to whether a movement is right dominant or left dominant in its execution. Although all human beings develop a functional lateral bias that is reinforced by the habits in their daily lives, it has been suggested that dance training increases asymmetry because of its over-emphasis on the right side of the body (Mertz et al., 2011). Despite this hypothesis that dance training could be a proponent of lateral bias toward right dominant movement, dancers are encouraged to be symmetrically proficient in their ability to perform movements that are both right dominant and left dominant to avoid choreographic limitation and injury.
While it is difficult to determine if asymmetries are pre-existing in a dancer, there is strong evidence that dancers have a highly-developed proprioceptive sense that allows them to accurately identify relatively minute differences in their own laterality (Jola et al., 2011). The objective of this research was to determine if university dance students’ perception of their lateral bias correlates with their actual lateral bias. This information will help dance researchers to understand the effect of lateral bias on dance training and performance, as well as assist dance teachers in making informed choices about how to develop well-rounded dancers.
Travel and service are two fundamental activities for me. One way I have been able to combine these experiences and cultivate my love for them is through the University of Wyoming’s Alternative Breaks Program. The mission of this program is, “to engage the University of Wyoming community in service and experiential learning while promoting global citizenship”. The goals for students include, but are not limited to, “enact positive change through service, develop a stronger community between students, empower student leaders, becoming further educated on social justice issues, as well as encourage students to become active citizens”. It is through the Alternative Breaks program that I have been able to see positive changes in myself, as I have reached some of the goals outlined for students.
My first exposure to Alternative Breaks was during my sophomore year, when I went to Kanab, Utah. We worked with Best Friends Animal Sanctuary while focusing on animal wellness for this trip. One year later, I went to Matelot, Trinidad. The focus of this trip was community development and women’s education. The two trips were drastically different, while remaining equally impactful. This year, I have the tremendous opportunity to co-lead a trip to Arizona in March 2018. The goal for this trip is to learn about, and provide service for immigration rights and reform. To do so, we will work with non-profit organizations in Tucson and Phoenix, getting exposure to people whose lives are affected by immigration rights on a daily basis.
This analysis examines the trends of fifty years of forensic rhetoric regarding autoerotic asphyxiation (AEA) in Judeo-Christian society and discusses how taboos influence this society’s perception of the act. Each component mechanism of the AEA taboo is separately analyzed; both for its own effects on society and for its influence on the overarching AEA taboo. A recommendation is made about ways to combat the effects of the taboo. Emphasis is placed on why these changes are important.
During her ten day trip to Ireland and Northern Ireland, scholar and creative writer Sarah Duncan examined, through exploring her own Irish family history, the connections between Irish migration and the construction of whiteness in what's known as the United States.