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Moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) improves aerobic and functional fitness and prevents chronic disease and premature morbidity. Aerobic and functional fitness are validated clinical indicators of chronic disease risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient and safe alternative to MICE that has positive effects on some chronic diseases and risk in younger healthy populations. Limited research has investigated HIIT in older, at-risk populations; and the health benefits of including resistance traininginto HIIT approaches (HIRT) is even more limited in older, at-risk adults. The purpose of this research was to determine the aerobic and functional fitness efficacy of HIIT and HIRT exercise interventions compared to MICE in older adults at-risk for chronic disease.
Forty-eight adults (≥65 years) were recruited and randomized into three 8-week exercise intervention groups: MICE (active control), HIIT, and HIRT. Aerobic (VO2max) and functional fitness (functional movement screen, FMS; timed-up-and-go, TUG; floor transfer time, FTT) were measured at baseline and after 8-weeks. VO2max improved similarly in all groups (HIIT 2.2±0.3; HIRT=3.5±0.7. MICE 2.1±0.5 ml/kg/min, P<0.01). Both high-intensity groups improved in FTT (HIRT=17%, P<0.01; HIIT=12%, P<0.05) and FMS (HIRT=17%, HIIT =10%,P<0.01). Only HIRT improved in TUG (10.6%) and balance (9%). No injuries or adverse events occurred in any group. HIRT and HITT are as safe and efficacious as MICE in older adults for improving aerobic and functional fitness. HIRT appears to elicit additional functional fitness benefits, but both high-intensity approaches are safe and effective alternatives for older adults’ with or at-risk for developing chronic disease.
All current forms of authentication are exploitable via social engineering, theft, hacking, or replication. Due to this, a new form of authentication should be explored: behavioral. A solution to this problem would result in more secure digital environment, including physical access to computers as well as software access. The maze-solving approach presented by this project allows for multiple variables to be observed within a user, presenting many facets of behavior that can be analyzed. In order to solve this problem, enough parameters must be collected and contrasted against one another in order to tell different humans apart from each other based on how they solve a maze.
Other methods of currently existing authentication rely on what you own (physical keys), what you know (passwords), and what you have (biometrics). By creating a randomly generated maze and having an observer AI object keep track of how different users solve a maze, we are able to tell two different users apart from one another to a similar degree of accuracy as other methods do. Our AI factors in variables such as time spent moving the player, time spent not moving, backtracking, strategy, and more.
The Ink and Paint department at the Walt Disney Studios, for a while, was a department completely staffed by women, but this department faded away with the introduction of technology at the studio. There has been a revival in knowing about the Ink and Paint department in recent years and the purpose of this paper is to figure out who owns the revival story because of the biases that surround this department. To understand the complexity of this department and therefore revival, this study was completed in three parts – how the department was viewed in the past (to know how the studio viewed the department during the golden years of the studio), how it is viewed in a museum setting, and how it is viewed in present day with the publication of a book. I found biases in how the story is being told in different settings and the format of telling these stories greatly impact how the public then views these stories as well. The story that is being presented as the truth was told though the lens of unbiased sources such as a museum, but these entities actually hold many biases, but they have the privilege of controlling how the Ink and Paint department is viewed in present day.
Plenty Unlimited farms are contained within 100,000 square foot warehouses which require a substantial amount of goods transportation. Currently, these goods are primarily transported by humans. In order to optimize labor efficiency within the warehouse, remedial tasks such as manually carrying goods should be conducted autonomously. This investigation aims to address the issue of automating the task of carrying goods. Automated material handlers for warehouses already exist; however, these handlers are very expensive and are riddled with non-essential functionality. The material handler design proposed by the senior design team and Plenty Unlimited engineers is a line-following, multi-directional robot capable of receiving a destination to which it will deliver up to 500lbs of produce. The current iteration of the design will have only the most basic functionality; however, the microprocessor is capable of being reprogrammed to include other desired functionality. The current design still requires the robot to be loaded and unloaded manually; this problem will be addressed in future iterations of the design and is not included in the current project scope. Because the robot will be used in an agricultural warehouse in which food is produced, the materials used to construct the robot must meet FDA standards. Furthermore, the robot must be safe and easy to use by humans. Implementation of the proposed design will provide Plenty Unlimited with a safer and more time-efficient means of goods transportation.
Manual wheelchair users traditionally suffer from an increased risk of chronic shoulder injury and the inability to travel quickly or uphill independently. Beginning as a senior design project in fall of 2016, Wyoming Wheels is a geared, lever-action, manual wheelchair system designed to mitigate these challenges. For the 2017-2018 school year, the goal of the project was to create a functional prototype by optimizing the previous year’s project. Specifically, the weight and noise output needed to be decreased, and the shifting, braking, and overall ergonomics of the chair needed to be improved. The total weight of the chair was reduced by 40% by replacing the original steel gears and handles with Delrin® plastic and lightweight aluminum. By combining a single planetary gear system with a 3-speed internally geared hub, the gearing and shifting systems were simplified and the sound output was reduced to that of a bicycle. A two-way pawl was designed to engage the planetary gear system as a clutch such that the gears are only driven when the lever action handles are engaged. This creates a default neutral setting, allowing the user to operate the chair normally when the handles are not engaged. The shifting interface was simplified by implementing a standard bicycle twisting shifter. An internal drum-brake system was added for improved stopping power and increased safety. The handle was re-designed to incorporate the twist shifter, brake lever, and pawl-clutch lever in a useful and ergonomic arrangement. This prototype was ultimately successful in meeting the desired objectives.
To support economic planning and development in Wyoming, the University of Wyoming (UW), the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) and the Wyoming Business Council (WBC) developed a series of over 150 maps intended to communicate various industry assets available in the state to leverage growth and development of associated industry sectors. This paper discusses the context and objectives of this project, the geographic information systems methodology developed for the creation of these maps, a critique of the maps, as well as a demonstration of their intended use.
This paper reviews what gestational diabetes mellitus is; it’s pathophysiology, epidemiology, risks, effects, clinical characteristics, screenings, diagnostics, treatment, and recommended follow up. Gestational diabetes mellitus rate has doubled during the last 20 years in the United States. There is currently only one FDA approved medication (insulin) for gestational diabetes mellitus; however there are a couple anti-hyperglycemic agents that are used off label for this disease. This paper looks at their efficacy and safety of such medications; metformin and glyburide. Current guidelines, clinical trials, retrospective studies, systematic reviews, and case reports were used to assess gestational diabetes and management. This is to help guide pharmacists to understand gestational diabetes mellitus, best practices to manage this disease state, and recommended follow up.
Fractured crystalline aquifers of mountain watersheds may host a significant portion of the world’s freshwater supply. To effectively utilize water resources in these environments, it is important to understand the hydraulic properties, groundwater storage, and flow processes in crystalline aquifers and field-derived insights are critically needed. Based on borehole hydraulic characterization and monitoring data, this study inferred hydraulic properties and groundwater flow of a crystalline fractured aquifer in Laramie Range, Wyoming. At three open holes completed in a fractured granite aquifer, both slug tests and FLUTe liner profiling were performed to obtain estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kh). Televiewer (i.e., optical and acoustic) and flowmeter logs were then jointly interpreted to identify the number of flowing fractures and fracture zones. Based on these data, hydraulic apertures were obtained for each borehole. Average groundwater velocity was then computed using Kh, aperture, and water level monitoring data. Finally, based on all available data, including cores, borehole logs, LIDAR topography, and a seismic P-wave velocity model, a three dimensional geological model of the site was built. In this fractured aquifer, (1) borehole Kh varies over ∼4 orders of magnitude (10−8 –10−5 m/ s). Kh is consistently higher near the top of the bedrock that is interpreted as the weathering front. Using a cutoff Kh of 10−10 m/s, the hydraulically significant zone extends to ∼40–53 m depth. (2) FLUTe-estimated hydraulic apertures of fractures vary over 1 order of magnitude, and at each borehole, the average hydraulic aperture by FLUTe is very close to that obtained from slug tests. Thus, slug test can be used to provide a reliable estimate of the average fracture hydraulic aperture. (3) Estimated average effective fracture porosity is 4.0 × 10−4 , therefore this fractured aquifer can host significant quantity of water. (4) Natural groundwater velocity is estimated to range from 0.4 to 81.0 m/day, implying rapid pathways of fracture flow. (5) The average ambient water table position follows the boundary between saprolite and fractured bedrock. Groundwater flow at the site appears topography driven.
Recall of content knowledge is a skill that every elementary-aged student uses throughout the school day. This skill is practiced in each content area that is associated with collecting information from any oral or written text. Students who are able to recall important knowledge are then able to synthesize that information so it is adequately stored as schema for future learning. Recall can be practiced with literacy and nonfiction texts in the literacy content area. The ability to recall is a skill that is practiced in creating sequels of literacy works along with synthesizing research from two article sources in order to write a paragraph about both articles. Lessons that focus on this skill of retelling and recalling information help students to later access prior knowledge as scaffolding for new knowledge. This skill was practiced with third graders through a fiction, literacy piece along with two nonfiction articles on endangered animal species. With the literacy work students were expected to create their own sequel of the story with original story elements. Then student with the endangered species articles were expected to synthesize information from both to create their own analysis of them in a paragraph.
The state of Wyoming contains the headwaters for the Colorado River, a river that supplies billions of people their water throughout the Western United States. Water is a vital resource that all life needs to survive. As climate change is predicted to change the known water regime and timing in snowpack melt, the state must plan for changes in water availability. In 2015, Wyoming’s Governor Matthew Mead released Wyoming’s Water Strategy to address and plan for future water scarcity. Within his plan, the governor laid out plans for 10 new water storage projects in ten years. Three years after the plan was published, no projects have been completed and only two have been started.
The goal of this project was to understand the necessity and accuracy for Governor Mead’s plan. This was accomplished by observing and interviewing people throughout the state of Wyoming who would be affected by the Governor’s plan. This project also offers different projects or solutions the state would benefit from considering the uncertainty in the future of water.
Many factors could play a role in individual variation in amount and length of parental care. We studied parental care during the incubation period of the Black-capped antshrikes (Thamnophilus atrinucha) in central Panama. Our comprehensive data set allowed us to determine the impacts of parental traits (age and sex), offspring traits (time of year and age of young), and climate (rain and temperature) on variation in parental care within the species. We found that an interaction between sex and age of the adult influenced incubation behavior, while time of the year and age of young did not alter incubation. Perhaps most important, was rain’s significant impact on parental care, with more care in drier years. These results have conservation implications for future parental care, juvenile recruitment, and population trends of the antshrike in the face of a changing tropical climate.
Over the years marketing campaigns have used traditional models representing a limited body image to attract consumers and influence purchasing decisions. However, marketers today are faced with the task of marketing to a new demographic segment called millennials. Body image is a topic that is brought up in the media along with marketing campaigns. In order to explore how body image effects how millennials make decisions regarding purchasing it is important to gather opinions from millennials through conducting a survey, researching the effects of past and present marketing campaigns, and looking at why millennials are different from past generations. When given a survey over 50% of millennials stated that body image was important to them. There are also a variety of brands including L’Oréal, Lane Bryant, and others that have shifted to including a more diverse set of models. Many also stated that they wished to see more diversity in marketing campaigns. With body image being important today amongst millennials it is important for marketers to take into consideration these behaviors. Marketers should incorporate diversity and focus on improving body image with their marketing
The design and construction of skyscrapers has rapidly increased in the last decade. This project results in the architectural design of an iconic hotel on the beach of Barcelona, Spain. Consideration for the surrounding Barcelona architecture, means of egress, structural system, mechanical system, shading design, and heating and cooling loads is incorporated within the floor plan and three-dimensional design of the building. Precedent examples are used to support design decisions. While the hotel is designed in detail, this project also includes the masterplan for the vacant site surrounding the hotel lot.
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness with significant impact on the United States healthcare system. An estimated 329,000 cases of Lyme disease occur annually in the United States, making it one of the top ten most common Nationally Notifiable diseases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The treatment of Lyme disease is responsible for approximate direct medical costs between $712 million to $1.3 billion annually. This comprehensive guide is intended to be used by healthcare professionals, particularly pharmacists, to assist in the evidence-based treatment and management of Lyme disease.
As the demand for electricity continues to grow around the world, so does the ability to provide electricity. However, a significant portion of the global population is still without reliable electricity or any electricity at all. Inconsistent grid power caused by natural disaster, prohibitively expensive utility costs and isolation from grid access are a few factors preventing many people around the world from having access to reliable electricity. These issues can often be addressed through simple solutions such as the implementation of generators and solar panels. But, these solutions can be expensive and present several hurdles such as fuel transportation and extensive battery storage.
The purpose of this design project was to create an affordable micro-hydroelectric generator made of universal components. By utilizing recycled car parts, metal scraps and other various materials, an affordable micro-hydroelectric generator has been built. A Toyota Denso 22RE alternator, converted to a permanent magnet alternator, produces electricity at low turbine speeds. The converted alternator was tested for power output and core temperature as a function of rotational speed. Remaining system components were designed while considering the converted core test results. A build manual for the system has been developed which prescribes materials and methods necessary to build the system. Affordability and availability were key points of focus throughout the project design and building phases. The developed system’s intended use is to provide electricity to communities and individuals all around the world.
Every day in America, 90 individuals die from overdosing on prescription pain relievers or synthetic opioids. From 1999 to 2015, American deaths from opioid drug overdoses increased from 8,048 to 33,091 (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2017). Approximately two million Americans in 2015 abused prescription pain relievers, which increased from 2014. Opioid receptors reside in the reward pathway of the brain, releasing the neurotransmitter dopamine, providing users with euphoria and analgesia. Long term drug use induces chronic constipation, drug tolerance, immune suppression, hormonal changes, and increased sensitivity to pain (Dennis, B., Naji, L., et al., 2014). Opioid use disorders also negatively impact an individual’s mental status, increasing incidences of depression, anxiety, and suicide.
This review examines previous research to assess the physiological effects of opioid dependence and overdose, with analysis of treatment. For treatment of opioid dependence, Methadone and Suboxone are useful medications. The medications provide enough opioid receptor activity to avoid withdrawals, but not enough stimulation compared to prescription or synthetic opioids. Since Methadone and Suboxone reduce activity at the opioid receptors, the individual experiences less physical dependence. An additional medication can be used for acute overdoses; Naloxone, commonly known as Narcan, can rapidly reverse an acute opioid overdose by blocking the opioid receptors.
Skinner, Cameron, J., The Future of Car Dealerships: Omnichannel Sales in the Experience
Economy, B.S., Management & Marketing, April, 2018
As the demographics of the car-buying population begin to undergo dramatic shifts, the dealership model is facing unprecedented challenges to adapt to the new experience economy. Currently, only 17% of polled participants like the current car-buying model, which has negative implications for multiple industries directly and complementarily associated with dealerships. With industry disruptors, such as Tesla, challenging the quo socially, technologically, and legislatively while hedging at leaders and garnering market share, the car salesman concept (that has been in place since the inception of automobiles) is under attack.
The goal of this project was to analyze the dealership model and the consumer market, and to ultimately determine the future of the car-buying process. This was accomplished by investigating consumer preferences, trends in the automobile and transportation industries, international comparisons, and the history of the dealership. All of this was taken into account to develop a sustainable, omnichannel prototype of the dealership model that benefits both the industry firms and consumers.
Microgravity is defined as a state of having very little gravity, such as that experienced in space. Research has been performed by NASA for over 25 years as a way to determine how space technologies are impacted by a microgravity environment. To simulate microgravity, an aerodynamic payload is dropped in a vacuum chamber or from high altitudes until a state of freefall is reached. NASA drop towers are the standard microgravity testing platforms used today. These towers can produce microgravity environments for 2.2-5.2 seconds; however, these platforms are expensive and require months of advanced planning. The University of Wyoming (UW) microgravity project aims to develop a low cost alternative, while also producing microgravity environments that are equal to or better than that of drop towers. For this project, microgravity is achieved by dropping an aerodynamic payload from a weather balloon from an altitude of 100,000 feet. If successful 15-20 seconds of microgravity can be achieved.
The first UW Microgravity drop occurred in August 2017. Shock force data from the drop revealed that the internal structure components were significantly over-designed. Incorrect stress analysis of the recovery method contributed to this over-design. The over-designed components add unnecessary mass to the payload. The drop also revealed poor integration between the electronic systems and internal frame. The main objective of this project was to optimize the recovery method to reduce shock force, decrease the mass of the internal structure, and provide enhanced integration between electronic systems and the internal frame.
Medicine is and always has been an essential part of human existence. Throughout history, our ancestors have been consistently striving to cure disease, ease pain and prolong life. Although medicine has drastically evolved through time, these goals still define the core of today’s medicine, and thus history intimately connects us with our ancestors. This link allows humanity to learn from countless years of human experience, and gain valuable information that enables incredible improvements. By implementing knowledge from past successes and failures in medicine, changes can be focused, efficient and evidence based. Therefore, the undeniable synergy between the history of medicine and healthcare improvement, warrants a thorough review of medicine’s past, present and future.
Healthcare has rapidly developed through history and its progression is still rapidly increasing. A once barbaric and chaotic trade has evolved into one of the most precise and calculated professions in the world. Although medicine has become highly advanced with cures for complex diseases and innovative treatments, that is not to say it is perfect by any measure. In fact, our US healthcare system is badly broken. There are numerous improvements to be made, primarily to improve the quality, access and cost of good healthcare. More specifically, the major problems in our healthcare system are: medical errors, physician time with patients, access to care and end of life care. Reassuringly, there are many feasible innovative solutions and great minds dedicated to fixing these issues.
Mathematics instruction at the elementary level is a complex process. How does one meet the various needs of students with different learning styles and varied instructional levels while keeping every child engaged in the lesson? During my student teaching experience in a third-grade class, I planned, taught, and evaluated two math lessons with the goal of improving my implementation of mathematics instruction. These lessons focused on division and were based on information provided by the Go Math mathematics curriculum. The purpose of this content is to strengthen the students understanding of operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It also serves to prepare students for more fraction centered instruction. These lessons use the workshop model of teaching which provides opportunities for whole group instruction, partner work, and independent work with strong teacher support.
During my evaluation, I chose three students to act as target students. Their summative assessments were closely evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the lesson and feedback was provided to the students to help either strengthen or enrich their understanding of the content. I chose three students of varying levels in order to ensure that I effectively differentiated my instruction for the students. I selected one student who is performing math at a sixth-grade level, one who performs math at a third-grade level, and one student on an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Through this planning, implementation, and evaluation process, I have developed skills and strategies that will strengthen my instruction as an educator.