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In this study, we will be continuing a longitudinal study measuring both indirect and direct prejudice toward African Americans. Based on the two-dimensional model of prejudice (Son Hing et al., 2008), we can combine scores on the measures of prejudice and categorize participants into modern racists, aversive racists, principled conservatives, and low in prejudice. With over 7,000 participants thus far, we have been able to identify geographic regions within the United States that represent the four different forms of prejudice. The goals of the proposed study are 1) to increase the sample size and identify states characterized by the different forms of prejudice, 2) examine whether certain forms of prejudice relate to state level outcomes (e.g., racial disparities in prisons), and 3) determine whether aversive racism and modern racism are equally associated with negative outcomes.
In 1986, Manito (Chicanos of New Mexican origin) residents living in the South Park Barrio of Riverton, Wyoming were frustrated at the city’s neglect of their neighborhood. After various attempts to incite action among local leaders to address road conditions in the barrio, the residents took it upon themselves to improve the then dirt roads that ran through their side of town. Most of the residents in the barrio demonstrated a communal activism not seen often in Riverton and worked tirelessly for weeks to pave the roads and create sidewalks. The community did not rely on outside sources; instead, they used the skills they had to perform manual labor and domestic tasks to complete the project. Barrio residents in 1986 carefully documented this historic event through photography, video, and poetry. As an important moment in Wyoming’s social justice history, a celebration of the 30th anniversary of the South Park Paving Project is planned for July 2016. As part of the larger Following the Manito Trail: Los nuevomexicanos en Guayomin research project, Herrera and Fonseca will work with the Manito community in Riverton to ensure the success of this important event by documenting both the historical and the contemporary materials of the South Park Paving Project. Our research methods include the collection of oral histories and archival documents (both from families and government/state agencies) and the digital documentation of communities through photography and video. Our goal is to create a visual and historical representation of the Manito people who live in this region as a way to highlight and celebrate the ways in which they have engaged in community activism.
While Europe has become a destination goal for millions of displaced persons, Germany is unique for the drastic growth of their accepted refugee and asylum seeker population over the past few years. The influx of asylum seekers and refugees has sparked public conversation about belonging and integration, and this research investigates to what extent discursive framings of citizenship, nationhood, Self, and Other impact the integration of contemporary asylum seekers and refugees in Germany. Based on fieldwork in Berlin during 2016, participant observation, 44 interviews with asylum seekers, refugees, and those who work closely with them, and discourse analysis, findings suggest that the challenges of integration are further complicated by assumptions about identity that are communicated through discursive framings of citizenship, nationhood, Self, and Other. Within this context, refugees are consistently patronized or criminalized to such an extent that they cannot become part of German society, despite constant pressure to integrate.
The subject of traumatic war neurosis---today such an integral part of discussions of military service and civil obligations to traumatized veterans---finds its origins in the controversy surrounding shell shock in the First World War. Stories of nerve wrecked men with inexplicable symptoms captivated public interest in a way that it never had before, forcing both the medical and military communities to confront the specter of war neurosis in modern warfare. My work targets the battle over diagnostic methodology that occurred between Canadian neurologists and psychiatrists. Cases of psychologically traumatized servicemen became the fighting ground between each discipline as both sides sought to prove their own theories of causation and treatment correct. My thesis traces the history of “shell shock” in Canada from its beginnings in 1914 through the post-war pension debate of 1930. In particular I focus on how the diagnoses of war neurosis in the Canadian Expeditionary Forces were influenced not only by the constantly changing medical understanding of the disease, but also by Canadian masculinity, social class, and heredity as well as the needs of the Allied forces.
My thesis draws on personal letters and memoirs of Canadian soldiers with shell shock as well as military memos and correspondence to tell the story of the men that experienced shell shock in the First World War. My research also relies heavily on private patient files, medical publications, and medical notes and memos regarding shell shocked Canadians.
One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and education.
A low SES and accompanying poverty co-factors influence changes in the brain, including both the type and rate of change. Variances have been noted in the frontal lobe, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and the white and grey matter size and ratios. Neurotransmitter and hormone modifications have also been observed. These brain changes have long-reaching impacts, affecting educational and intellectual attainment, emotional processing, and risk of mental illness.
As knowledge regarding poverty-driven brain changes increases, more possible intervention strategies are being developed. These strategies center on parental involvement and mental and verbal stimulation. The achievement discrepancies noticed between children raised below the poverty line and children raised above it likely contribute to the continuation of intergenerational poverty. Further research and information regarding poverty and how it affects the developing brain contribute to developing target strategies to ameliorate the effects of childhood poverty.
Because Albany County is the home of the state’s only four-year university, there is a question as to how the student population affects the proportion of county residents considered food insecure. Until now, it has been unclear how many students are struggling to access food. In 2017, a group of University of Wyoming faculty and administrators from the Department of Agricultural Economics, Financial Services, and the Office of Academic Affairs signed up for The Ohio State University’s College Study on Financial Wellness, which included a food security module (Alexander). Surveying 722 undergraduates and using USDA metrics, the researchers discovered that 18.7% of respondents expressed low food security, and another 18.7% expressed very low food security (McDaniel et. al). These statistics are on par with the average of all of the four year public institutions that participated in the survey, but this does not mean they are inconsequential. At a school with nearly 10,000 undergraduates and an additional 2,000 graduate students (none of whom were surveyed), the data suggests that thousands of students may be struggling to nourish themselves (UW Quick Facts). This project is an effort to better understand the experiences of UW students, the existing institutions that are relevant to food access, and the opportunities for better supporting students who are struggling to acquire nutritious food. Local experts assert that any response to food insecurity is more effective and more just if users are involved in its design (Dunning, Porter). Campus culture is another consideration which may stigmatize the use of services that provide food to students at no cost (Alexander). Additionally, the success of campus projects generally depends not only on student interest, but also on some degree of administrative and financial backing from the institution. The project’s outcomes include three parts aimed at motivating institutional support and student action, while reducing stigma surrounding the use of services.
The GetFRUVED Project; a USDA approved joint research opportunity evaluating over 90 academic institutions throughout the United States, was designed to assess the health and wellness status of campus environments. Of those institutions included, the University of Wyoming was selected to serve as a Control Site, with collected data focused on the evaluation of the health facilitation resources it offers. To accomplish this, two methods of research were utilized including 1) an initial survey and 2) a subsequent audit series. Entitled the “Health, Fitness and Wellness Survey”, this initial assessment, designed by the GetFRUVED research team, was distributed across campus via email. The Health, Fitness, and Wellness Survey contained a variety of questions regarding students’ personal behaviors, as well as perceptions of the healthfulness of the University of Wyoming campus environment. Along with survey-collected data, observational audits were conducted as well. These audits targeted three primary sectors of campus health: Dining, Physical Fitness and Recreation, and Health Policy. Within Dining and Physical Fitness, various establishments located both on campus grounds as well as within a set perimeter were visited and evaluated through the use of predetermined audit forms. To evaluate the sector of Health Policy, the University’s website and complementary databases were utilized. Audits were conducted by a 7-member team composed of undergraduate community nutrition students, as well as undergraduate honors and graduate researchers. All data obtained from the survey and audits were compiled and submitted to the GetFRUVED national research team for analysis and quantification. Data collection for the GetFRUVED project reached completion at the end of 2017. Data specific to the University of Wyoming, when compared to national results, found campus recreation and several areas within both dining and wellness to be above average, with the remainder of areas assessed below average. Feedback from the GetFRUVED project will be used to enhance current health and wellness resources as well as inspire the creation of novel programs and offerings.
Race is a deeply ingrained part of society, impacting all aspects of a person’s life including health care. In the United States, a person of minority status is more likely to live a sicker and shorter life compared to a Caucasian American. There has never been a time, in the history of the country, that the health status of minorities has been equal to that of Caucasians (Geiger, 2003; Byrd and Clayton, 2000; National Center of Health Statistics, 2003). Minorities live six years shorter than a person of the social majority born at the same time in the same place (National Center for Health Statistics, 2003). Yet, the difference in DNA between one human to any other human on the planet is only half of a percent (Berg et al., 2015). The disparity in health care is not attributed to physical or biological differences between races, but to social and cultural barriers.
The goal of this project was to examine the historical context in which the United States health system began having a health gap between different races, the current scope of the problem with health disparity, and potential solutions. While health disparity is a shocking and dangerous issue, there are steps that the medical community can take to educate future and current health care providers to better care for racial minorities.
Moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) improves aerobic and functional fitness and prevents chronic disease and premature morbidity. Aerobic and functional fitness are validated clinical indicators of chronic disease risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient and safe alternative to MICE that has positive effects on some chronic diseases and risk in younger healthy populations. Limited research has investigated HIIT in older, at-risk populations; and the health benefits of including resistance traininginto HIIT approaches (HIRT) is even more limited in older, at-risk adults. The purpose of this research was to determine the aerobic and functional fitness efficacy of HIIT and HIRT exercise interventions compared to MICE in older adults at-risk for chronic disease.
Forty-eight adults (≥65 years) were recruited and randomized into three 8-week exercise intervention groups: MICE (active control), HIIT, and HIRT. Aerobic (VO2max) and functional fitness (functional movement screen, FMS; timed-up-and-go, TUG; floor transfer time, FTT) were measured at baseline and after 8-weeks. VO2max improved similarly in all groups (HIIT 2.2±0.3; HIRT=3.5±0.7. MICE 2.1±0.5 ml/kg/min, P<0.01). Both high-intensity groups improved in FTT (HIRT=17%, P<0.01; HIIT=12%, P<0.05) and FMS (HIRT=17%, HIIT =10%,P<0.01). Only HIRT improved in TUG (10.6%) and balance (9%). No injuries or adverse events occurred in any group. HIRT and HITT are as safe and efficacious as MICE in older adults for improving aerobic and functional fitness. HIRT appears to elicit additional functional fitness benefits, but both high-intensity approaches are safe and effective alternatives for older adults’ with or at-risk for developing chronic disease.
All current forms of authentication are exploitable via social engineering, theft, hacking, or replication. Due to this, a new form of authentication should be explored: behavioral. A solution to this problem would result in more secure digital environment, including physical access to computers as well as software access. The maze-solving approach presented by this project allows for multiple variables to be observed within a user, presenting many facets of behavior that can be analyzed. In order to solve this problem, enough parameters must be collected and contrasted against one another in order to tell different humans apart from each other based on how they solve a maze.
Other methods of currently existing authentication rely on what you own (physical keys), what you know (passwords), and what you have (biometrics). By creating a randomly generated maze and having an observer AI object keep track of how different users solve a maze, we are able to tell two different users apart from one another to a similar degree of accuracy as other methods do. Our AI factors in variables such as time spent moving the player, time spent not moving, backtracking, strategy, and more.
The Ink and Paint department at the Walt Disney Studios, for a while, was a department completely staffed by women, but this department faded away with the introduction of technology at the studio. There has been a revival in knowing about the Ink and Paint department in recent years and the purpose of this paper is to figure out who owns the revival story because of the biases that surround this department. To understand the complexity of this department and therefore revival, this study was completed in three parts – how the department was viewed in the past (to know how the studio viewed the department during the golden years of the studio), how it is viewed in a museum setting, and how it is viewed in present day with the publication of a book. I found biases in how the story is being told in different settings and the format of telling these stories greatly impact how the public then views these stories as well. The story that is being presented as the truth was told though the lens of unbiased sources such as a museum, but these entities actually hold many biases, but they have the privilege of controlling how the Ink and Paint department is viewed in present day.
Plenty Unlimited farms are contained within 100,000 square foot warehouses which require a substantial amount of goods transportation. Currently, these goods are primarily transported by humans. In order to optimize labor efficiency within the warehouse, remedial tasks such as manually carrying goods should be conducted autonomously. This investigation aims to address the issue of automating the task of carrying goods. Automated material handlers for warehouses already exist; however, these handlers are very expensive and are riddled with non-essential functionality. The material handler design proposed by the senior design team and Plenty Unlimited engineers is a line-following, multi-directional robot capable of receiving a destination to which it will deliver up to 500lbs of produce. The current iteration of the design will have only the most basic functionality; however, the microprocessor is capable of being reprogrammed to include other desired functionality. The current design still requires the robot to be loaded and unloaded manually; this problem will be addressed in future iterations of the design and is not included in the current project scope. Because the robot will be used in an agricultural warehouse in which food is produced, the materials used to construct the robot must meet FDA standards. Furthermore, the robot must be safe and easy to use by humans. Implementation of the proposed design will provide Plenty Unlimited with a safer and more time-efficient means of goods transportation.
Manual wheelchair users traditionally suffer from an increased risk of chronic shoulder injury and the inability to travel quickly or uphill independently. Beginning as a senior design project in fall of 2016, Wyoming Wheels is a geared, lever-action, manual wheelchair system designed to mitigate these challenges. For the 2017-2018 school year, the goal of the project was to create a functional prototype by optimizing the previous year’s project. Specifically, the weight and noise output needed to be decreased, and the shifting, braking, and overall ergonomics of the chair needed to be improved. The total weight of the chair was reduced by 40% by replacing the original steel gears and handles with Delrin® plastic and lightweight aluminum. By combining a single planetary gear system with a 3-speed internally geared hub, the gearing and shifting systems were simplified and the sound output was reduced to that of a bicycle. A two-way pawl was designed to engage the planetary gear system as a clutch such that the gears are only driven when the lever action handles are engaged. This creates a default neutral setting, allowing the user to operate the chair normally when the handles are not engaged. The shifting interface was simplified by implementing a standard bicycle twisting shifter. An internal drum-brake system was added for improved stopping power and increased safety. The handle was re-designed to incorporate the twist shifter, brake lever, and pawl-clutch lever in a useful and ergonomic arrangement. This prototype was ultimately successful in meeting the desired objectives.
To support economic planning and development in Wyoming, the University of Wyoming (UW), the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) and the Wyoming Business Council (WBC) developed a series of over 150 maps intended to communicate various industry assets available in the state to leverage growth and development of associated industry sectors. This paper discusses the context and objectives of this project, the geographic information systems methodology developed for the creation of these maps, a critique of the maps, as well as a demonstration of their intended use.
This paper reviews what gestational diabetes mellitus is; it’s pathophysiology, epidemiology, risks, effects, clinical characteristics, screenings, diagnostics, treatment, and recommended follow up. Gestational diabetes mellitus rate has doubled during the last 20 years in the United States. There is currently only one FDA approved medication (insulin) for gestational diabetes mellitus; however there are a couple anti-hyperglycemic agents that are used off label for this disease. This paper looks at their efficacy and safety of such medications; metformin and glyburide. Current guidelines, clinical trials, retrospective studies, systematic reviews, and case reports were used to assess gestational diabetes and management. This is to help guide pharmacists to understand gestational diabetes mellitus, best practices to manage this disease state, and recommended follow up.
Fractured crystalline aquifers of mountain watersheds may host a significant portion of the world’s freshwater supply. To effectively utilize water resources in these environments, it is important to understand the hydraulic properties, groundwater storage, and flow processes in crystalline aquifers and field-derived insights are critically needed. Based on borehole hydraulic characterization and monitoring data, this study inferred hydraulic properties and groundwater flow of a crystalline fractured aquifer in Laramie Range, Wyoming. At three open holes completed in a fractured granite aquifer, both slug tests and FLUTe liner profiling were performed to obtain estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kh). Televiewer (i.e., optical and acoustic) and flowmeter logs were then jointly interpreted to identify the number of flowing fractures and fracture zones. Based on these data, hydraulic apertures were obtained for each borehole. Average groundwater velocity was then computed using Kh, aperture, and water level monitoring data. Finally, based on all available data, including cores, borehole logs, LIDAR topography, and a seismic P-wave velocity model, a three dimensional geological model of the site was built. In this fractured aquifer, (1) borehole Kh varies over ∼4 orders of magnitude (10−8 –10−5 m/ s). Kh is consistently higher near the top of the bedrock that is interpreted as the weathering front. Using a cutoff Kh of 10−10 m/s, the hydraulically significant zone extends to ∼40–53 m depth. (2) FLUTe-estimated hydraulic apertures of fractures vary over 1 order of magnitude, and at each borehole, the average hydraulic aperture by FLUTe is very close to that obtained from slug tests. Thus, slug test can be used to provide a reliable estimate of the average fracture hydraulic aperture. (3) Estimated average effective fracture porosity is 4.0 × 10−4 , therefore this fractured aquifer can host significant quantity of water. (4) Natural groundwater velocity is estimated to range from 0.4 to 81.0 m/day, implying rapid pathways of fracture flow. (5) The average ambient water table position follows the boundary between saprolite and fractured bedrock. Groundwater flow at the site appears topography driven.
Recall of content knowledge is a skill that every elementary-aged student uses throughout the school day. This skill is practiced in each content area that is associated with collecting information from any oral or written text. Students who are able to recall important knowledge are then able to synthesize that information so it is adequately stored as schema for future learning. Recall can be practiced with literacy and nonfiction texts in the literacy content area. The ability to recall is a skill that is practiced in creating sequels of literacy works along with synthesizing research from two article sources in order to write a paragraph about both articles. Lessons that focus on this skill of retelling and recalling information help students to later access prior knowledge as scaffolding for new knowledge. This skill was practiced with third graders through a fiction, literacy piece along with two nonfiction articles on endangered animal species. With the literacy work students were expected to create their own sequel of the story with original story elements. Then student with the endangered species articles were expected to synthesize information from both to create their own analysis of them in a paragraph.
The state of Wyoming contains the headwaters for the Colorado River, a river that supplies billions of people their water throughout the Western United States. Water is a vital resource that all life needs to survive. As climate change is predicted to change the known water regime and timing in snowpack melt, the state must plan for changes in water availability. In 2015, Wyoming’s Governor Matthew Mead released Wyoming’s Water Strategy to address and plan for future water scarcity. Within his plan, the governor laid out plans for 10 new water storage projects in ten years. Three years after the plan was published, no projects have been completed and only two have been started.
The goal of this project was to understand the necessity and accuracy for Governor Mead’s plan. This was accomplished by observing and interviewing people throughout the state of Wyoming who would be affected by the Governor’s plan. This project also offers different projects or solutions the state would benefit from considering the uncertainty in the future of water.