A sufficient criterion for the unique parameter identification of combinatorially symmetric Hidden Markov Models, based on the structure of their transition matrix, is provided. If the observed states of the chain form a zero forcing set of the graph of the Markov model, then it is uniquely identifiable and an explicit reconstruction method is given.
In this note, sufficient conditions, based on the largest eigenvalue, are presented for some Hamiltonian properties of graphs.
Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the operator system $A_1X=C_1$, $XA_2=C_2$, $A_3XA^*_3=C_3$, and $A_4XA^*_4=C_4$ to have a common positive solution, where $A_i$'s and $C_i$'s are adjointable operators on Hilbert $C^*$-modules. This corrects a published result by removing some gaps in its proof. Finally, a technical example is given to show that the proposed investigation in the setting of Hilbert $C^*$-modules is different from that of Hilbert spaces.
The conjecture of Graham and Lov ́asz that the (normalized) coefficients of the distance characteristic polynomial of a tree are unimodal is proved; it is also shown that the (normalized) coefficients are log-concave. Upper and lower bounds on the location of the peak are established.
Octagonal systems are tree-like graphs comprised of octagons that represent a class of polycyclic conjugated hydrocarbons. In this paper, a roll-attaching operation for the calculation of the characteristic polynomials of octagonal chain graphs is proposed. Based on these characteristic polynomials, the extremal octagonal chains with n octagons having the maximum and minimum spectral radii are identified.